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Preparation of Specimens for Metallographic Examination . Exp.#2. . Objective. To prepare the specimens surfaces to be examined by the microscope. To learn and to gain experience in the preparation of metallographic specimens. . Introduction.

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preparation of specimens for metallographic examination

Preparation of Specimens for Metallographic Examination

Exp.#2.

Exp.4: Preparation of Specimens

objective
Objective
  • To prepare the specimens surfaces to be examined by the microscope.
  • To learn and to gain experience in the preparation of metallographic specimens.

Exp.4: Preparation of Specimens

introduction
Introduction
  • Metallography is basically the study of the structures and constitution of metals and alloys, using metallurgical microscopes and magnifications, so that the physical and mechanical properties of an alloy can be related to its observed microstructure.
  • Such microscopic studies can provide an abundance of constitutional information about the specimen under investigation, including the size and shape of the grains (crystallites), the presence of micro defects (such as segregation, hair cracks, and nonmetallic inclusions), and the nature and distribution of secondary phases.
  • The metallographic examination can be used in quality control and to predict and/or explain the mechanical properties.

Exp.4: Preparation of Specimens

introduction cont
Introduction cont.
  • Proper preparation of metallographic specimens to determine microstructure and content requires that a rigid step-by-step process be followed. In sequence, the steps include sectioning (cutting), mounting, course grinding, fine grinding, and polishing, etching and microscopic examination. Specimens must be kept clean and preparation procedure carefully followed in order to reveal accurate microstructures

Exp.4: Preparation of Specimens

equipment
Equipment
  • Minitom: Small, automatic precision cut-off machine for sectioning all materialographic and ceramic specimens.
  • Metason: Ultrasonic Cleaning: For effective ultrasonic cleaning of metallographic, ceramic, and mineralogical specimens
  • LaboPress-3 :Semi-automatic mounting press for hot mounting of all materials.

Exp.4: Preparation of Specimens

equipment cont
Equipment cont.
  • LaboPol (grinding and polishing machine):Machines for grinding, lapping and polishing for 200 or 230 mm discs.
  • LaboForce :Specimen movers for semi-automatic preparation of materialographic specimens on LaboPol grinding and polishing machines.
  • LectroPol-5: :Automatic, microprocessor controlled electrolytic polishing and etching of metallographic specimens

Exp.4: Preparation of Specimens

slide7

Hot MountingIn hot-mounting the sample is surrounded by an organic polymeric powder which melts under the influence of heat (about 200 oC). Pressure is also applied by a piston, ensuring a high quality mould free of porosity and with intimate contact between the sample and the polymer.

Exp.4: Preparation of Specimens

optimizing the amount of resin
Optimizing the amount of resin
  • It is important to supply enough resin during mounting. If the amount of resin is too small to cover the specimen after curing, the specimen, the ram and the cylinder may all be damaged.

Min no. of Spoons =

  • The factor 1.2 is multiplied to eliminate variation in the resin densities and the measuring during mounting.
  • Height of 1 Spoon (15 mm) of Resin after Mounting in an Empty Cylinder

Exp.4: Preparation of Specimens

slide9

Grinding and Polishing The specimen must:1. Be free from scratches, stains and others imperfections which tend to mark the surface.2. Retain non-metallic inclusions.3. Reveal no evidence of chipping due to brittle intermetallic compounds and phases.4. Be free from all traces of disturbed metal.

Exp.4: Preparation of Specimens

grinding
Grinding

Exp.4: Preparation of Specimens

polishing
Polishing

Exp.4: Preparation of Specimens

electrolytes
Electrolytes:

Exp.4: Preparation of Specimens

questions
Questions
  • Describe the steps involved in the preparation of a metallographic sample:
    • Sectioning (cutting)
    • Plastic coating of the samples
    • Mounting
    • Grinding
    • Polishing
    • Etching
  • Why should the specimen be roughly washed after each stage during either grinding or polishing?
  • Why is fine grinding performed wet?
  • What is the purpose of etching metallographic samples?
  • What are the advantages of electrolytic polishing?

Exp.4: Preparation of Specimens