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Introduction. Danfoss Training Module-3 * * * * * * Understanding Differential Pressure Control Valves. Back. Back. Next. Next. Introduction. Hello and welcome to the Danfoss training module ‘ Understanding Differential Pressure Control valves

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    1. Introduction Danfoss Training Module-3 * * * * * * Understanding Differential Pressure Control Valves Back Back Next Next - Page2

    2. Introduction Hello and welcome to the Danfoss training module ‘Understanding Differential Pressure Control valves The purpose of this training module is to give you the knowledge required to select, specify, and understand Danfoss products. Back Back Next Next - Page3

    3. Introduction We will examine the types of valves used to balance hydronic systems... …and how we select the correct product for the application they are to be used in. This module takes around 20 minutes and forms part of a ‘Continuous Professional Development’ training course. Once 3 modules are complete you can apply to Danfoss for a certificate of your achievement. Now let us begin…. Back Back Next Next - Page4

    4. The History of Danfoss Balancing Valve 1989 2003 2009 In 1989 Danfoss produced its first series of MSV commissioning and ASV automatic balancing valves. Back Back Next Next - Page5

    5. The History of Danfoss Balancing Valve 1989 2003 2009 In 2003 Danfoss was the first major valve manufacturer to introduce a combined control and automatic balancing valve, the AB-QM. Back Back Next Next - Page6

    6. The History ofDanfoss Balancing Valve 1989 2003 2009 The LENO MSV-O, unique commissioning valve was launched by Danfoss in 2009. By choosing Danfoss you have over 75 years of expertise behind you… Back Back Next Next - Page7

    7. Modernising Heating & Cooling Systems As clients look to improve the efficiency of heating and cooling systems, building services designers are increasingly looking at ways to reduce energy. Poor control and in-efficient system design are contributing factors to high building energy usage. By providing the correct temperature, using the least amount of energy possible, we can make heating and cooling systems comfortable for users, and run at a lower cost. A common way to improve a systems energy efficiency is to use variable speed pumps. Let us look at how variable speed pumped systems operate… Back Back Next Next - Page8

    8. Modernising Heating & Cooling Systems Variable speed pumps work by matching the pumps flow with the requirement of the system at any one time. As parts of the system reach temperature, and the control valves close, the pump senses a change in pressure. This pressure sensor is linked to a variable speed drive which matches the pump speed with the system requirement. Variable Speed Drive Back Back Next Next - Page9

    9. Modernising Heating & Cooling Systems Prior to variable speed, pumps ran at either 0% or 100%. Controlling the pump speed means we can provide enough flow to achieve the comfortable temperatures, and at the same time dramatically reduce the energy used to get it there. However this modulation of the pump, makes the system pressure and flow variable. This variable pressure means traditional static balancing (commissioning) valves cannot operate effectively in this type of system. In variable flow systems we need dynamic balancing valves which react to the changes in system pressure. Danfoss ASV Differential Pressure Control Valves will provide the dynamic balance required in variable flow systems. Variable Speed Drive Back Back Next Next - Page10

    10. ASV Differential Pressure Control Valves The use of Differential Pressure Control Valves is essential in modern hydronic systems. They provide dynamic balancing to react to pressure changes from the pump and to keep constant pressure in the circuits. This constant circuit pressure enables the system to balance and be accurately controlled. Back Back Next Next - Page11

    11. ASV Differential Pressure Control Valves The outcome of using DPCV’s is: -Good control whether the system is running at full or partial capacity -High control valve authority -Improved user comfort -Maximised pump energy savings To understand how we achieve these benefits, we first need to examine how ASV Differential Pressure Control Valves operate… Back Back Next Next - Page12

    12. Operation of Differential PressureControl Valves Danfoss ASV-PV DPCV’sare installed on the return pipe of the circuit. Danfoss ASV-Ipartner valve are used on the flow pipe. An impulse tube is installed from the partner valve to the DPCV and allows the flow pressure to act upon the top of the valve diaphragm. Partner Valve DPCV Back Back Next Next - Page13

    13. Operation of Differential PressureControl Valves The return pressure acts upon the underside of the diaphragm. The spring within the valve is set by the installer, using an allen key, to deliver a set circuit pressure loss. The diaphragm along with the spring act together to react to system changes and to keep this constant pressure loss. So as the system pressure rises, the diaphragm moves the valve cone down, to keep a controlled circuit pressure. Back Back Next Next - Page14

    14. Operation of Differential PressureControl Valves The commercial radiator heating circuit shown below demonstrates this process in action. Back Back Next Next - Page15

    15. Operation of Differential PressureControl Valves The pressure in the system (P1) is variable as the pump modulates to match the systems requirements. As the Differential Pressure Control Valve detects a change in the variable system pressure it reacts to keep a constant circuit pressure (P2). This constant pressure in the circuit gives the radiators a controlled flow. The controlled flow to the radiators allows the Thermostatic Radiator Valve to achieve a controlled temperature. This controlled temperature improves comfort for the users. P2 P1 Back Back Next Next - Page16

    16. Benefits of using Differential Pressure Control Valves Whilst the operation of Differential Pressure Control Valves demonstrate the benefits of improved temperature control, we should not end there. Comfort is not just about temperature. A common problem for variable flow systems without pressure control is noise. Here is why… Back Back Next Next - Page17

    17. Benefits of using Differential Pressure Control Valves System Noise As parts of our variable flow systems close down (this state is called partial load), the open circuits without pressure control see an increase in pressure. This increase in pressure results in a higher differential pressure across the radiator valves. If the differential pressure across the radiator valve becomes too high it will cause noise and this noise will be uncomfortable for users, Back Back Next Next - Page18

    18. Dp Without ASV’s With ASV’s Dp Dp supply system Pnom Pnom Pressure Drop 5x 50% 100% Flow 0% 0% 100% Flow 50% Benefits of using Differential Pressure Control Valves Differential pressure control ensures the pressure over the radiator valve will not increase at partial loads. Thus excess noise emissions caused by the radiator valves will be eradicated. The system without Danfoss ASV DPCV’s allows the excess pressure to be lost across the radiator valve (shown in red). By installing DPCV’s we remove the excess pressure in the balancing valve (yellow) giving the TRV’s a constant pressure. This eliminates noise. Back Back Next Next - Page19

    19. Benefits of using Differential Pressure Control Valves When looking for improved efficiency we should recognise the importance of the cost of installing the system. Danfoss Differential Pressure Controls Valves give clear cost savings by reducing the time taken to balance and commission. The traditional proportional balancing method requires each balancing valve to be visited at least twice to complete commissioning. This is because the setting of each commissioning valve affects others in the system. Back Back Next Next - Page20

    20. Benefits of using Differential Pressure Control Valves • This is not the case when using DPCV’s. • By installing ASV Differential Pressure Control Valve Sets you can divide the system into pressure independent zones. • This means once the DPCV has been set, the flow balance in this circuit is unaffected by any other changes in the rest of the system, e.g. Other circuits opening or closing down, pump speeding up or slowing down. • Each valve is only visited only once. • By reducing the number of visits to each valve by more half, we more than half the cost of water system commissioning. Heat Interface Unit Application Back Back Next Next - Page21

    21. Benefits of using Differential Pressure Control Valves To achieve the perfect balance Danfoss recommend the installation of ASV’s on all branches. When used on every branch, DPCV’s ensure accurate control and noise protection throughout the system. Time savings during commissioning are also best realised with complete DPCV coverage. Back Back Next Next - Page22

    22. Benefits of using Differential Pressure Control Valves Common applications for DPCV’s are to balance: -Under-floor heating manifolds (as pictured) -Radiator circuits -Heat interface units -Circuits with radiant panels DPCV’s can also be used in cooling systems to balance fan coils, chilled beams and air handling units. However Danfoss recommend utilising the additional benefits of Pressure Independent Control Valves in cooling applications. Back Back Next Next - Page23

    23. Radiator Circuit Pressure Loss ASV-I Pressure Loss ASV-PV Pressure Loss Return Pipe Flow Pipe Selecting ASV-PV Differential PressureControl Valves Sizing and selecting an ASV-PV Differential Pressure Control Valve is simple. To demonstrate how to size a DPCV we shall use an example of a radiator circuit requiring a flow of 0.7 l/s and a total circuit pressure loss of 18 kPa. The pipe-work is DN40. The 18 kPa total circuit pressure loss is the radiator circuit pressure loss added to the ASV-I partner valve pressure loss. The total circuit pressure loss does not include the ASV-PVDPCV pressure loss. When sizing an ASV-PV we aim to have a valve pressure loss of 10 kPa. 10 kPa is the most efficient operating pressure for a system with ASV-PV valves. Back Back Next Next - Page24

    24. Selecting ASV-PV Differential PressureControl Valves Thread Flange Now we have all the information required to select our valve, the next stage is to consult the ASV-PV datasheet. In this datasheet you will find a flow chart showing the achievable flow through the different valve sizes, when we have a 10 kPa valve pressure loss. Firstly we turn our 0.7 litre per second (l/s) flow rate in to litres per hour (l/h): 0.7 l/s *3600= 2520 l/h We then take a line (red) horizontally through 2520 l/h on the chart. The smallest valve which can achieve the flow is then selected. This is a DN40 valve. Back Back Next Next ASV Flow Chart - Page25

    25. Selecting ASV-PV Differential PressureControl Valves Once we have our valve size we then consult the datasheet for the available spring ranges for DN40 valves. The spring range is the differential pressure loss, we require in the circuit, and that we set in the DPCV. As you can see below we have 3 spring ranges for DN40 ASV-PV valves. In our example we require a circuit pressure loss of 18 kPa. The ideal spring range would therefore be 5-25 kPa. This leads us to select the ASV-PV DN40 valve with a 5-25 kPa spring range. This is Danfoss code number: 003L7605. Back Back Next Next - Page26

    26. Danfoss ASV Range of DifferentialPressure Control Valves Now we have looked at the theory behind Differential Pressure Control Valves, it will be useful to look at the products in more detail. Back Back Next Next - Page27

    27. Danfoss ASV Range of DifferentialPressure Control Valves Danfoss ASV-PV’s are compact, high performance valves, available in sizes ranging from 15-100mm. The valves have pressure spring ranges from as low as 5 kPa, up to a maximum of 100 kPa. The 15-40mm valves combine three services in one. They are a differential pressure control valve, an isolation valve, and a drain point. Back Back Next Next - Page28

    28. Danfoss ASV Range of DifferentialPressure Control Valves ASV-PV valves come complete with a 1.5m impulse tube with connectors, moulded valve insulation, and valve tags. In addition to this they feature: - Internal or external threaded pipe connections - Pressure range spring options of 5-25 kPa and 20-40 kPa in sizes 15-25mm - Spring options in sizes 32-40mm of 5-25 kPa, 20-40 kPa, and 35-75 kPa. - A very compact design - An operating temperature down as low as -20℃ and up to +120℃ Back Back Next Next - Page29

    29. Danfoss ASV Differential PressureControl Valve Danfoss ASV-PV valves in sizes 50-100mm are PN16 cast iron, DPCV’s with additional spring pressure ranges for higher pressures. They also incorporate three services in one. Acting as a differential pressure control valve, an isolation valve, and a drain point. The DN50 valve has four spring ranges. They are 5-25 kPa, 20-40 kPa, 35-75 kPa, 60-100 kPa. The DN65-100 valve sizes have three spring ranges, 20-40 kPa, 35-75 kPa, 60-100 kPa. The ASV-PV valves in 65-100mm are capable of handling valve pressure losses as high as 250 kPa. Back Back Next Next - Page30

    30. Danfoss ASV Differential PressureControl Valve Setting the ASV-PV is very simple. Once installed an allen key is used to set the circuit pressure loss. Each turn of the allen key relates to a pressure in kPa. In 5-25 kPa and 20-40 kPa spring ranges, one turn of the allen key changes the pressure by 1 kPa. Back Back Next Next - Page31

    31. Danfoss ASV Differential PressureControl Valve In 35-75 kPa and 60-100 kPa valves, one turn of the allen key changes the pressure by 2 kPa. Setting is commonly done by the commissioning engineer who monitors the pressure whilst adjusting the valve. When the required pressure loss is achieved the valve is set. Back Back Next Next - Page32

    32. Danfoss ASV-I Partner Valves Danfoss ASV-I partner valves are the ideal accompaniment to ASV-PV Differential Pressure Control Valves. They are four services in one: - A double regulating valve - A measuring point for commissioning - An isolation valve which is independent of the valve setting - A handy place to connect the impulse tube Back Back Next Next - Page33

    33. Danfoss ASV-I Partner Valves By using a partner valve along with a DPCV, the partner valve becomes a flow limiting double regulating valve. ASV-I valves are available in sizes 15-50mm. Where a partner valve is required for sizes 65mm and above, a Danfoss MSV-F2 flanged commissioning valve can be used to partner the ASV-PV. Back Back Next Next - Page34

    34. Pressure Independent Control Valves Before we conclude our look at Differential Pressure Control Valves, I’d like to look at just one more. This is the Danfoss type: AB-QM Pressure Independent Control Valve (PICV’s). AB-QM’s are used in fan coil, air handling, and chiller applications as a combined differential pressure and motorised control valve. Back Back Next Next - Page35

    35. Pressure Independent Control Valves By using an AB-QM at each terminal, we create a self balancing system with every coil receiving only its desired flow. By combining the control and balancing valve we more than half the number of valves installed, and reduce commissioning time by up to 2/3’s AB-QM’s will be covered in detail in a future Danfoss Training Module 4-’Pressure Independent Control Valves’ Back Back Next Next - Page36

    36. A Final Review You now have all the information required to specify, select, and understand the Danfoss range of Differential Pressure Control Valves Before we finish, let us review the information you have learned. Back Back Next Next - Page37

    37. A Final Review Differential Pressure Control Valves (DPCV’s) are used for dynamic balancing of hydronic heating and cooling systems. They react to changes in the system to keep a constant pressure in the circuit they control. This constant circuit pressure enables the system to balance and be accurately controlled. Differential pressure control valves are commonly used in variable flow pumping systems. Variable flow systems are used to improve the energy efficiency of heating and cooling systems. Back Back Next Next - Page38

    38. A Final Review DPCV’s are installed on the return pipe of the circuit. Partner valve are used on the flow pipe. An impulse tube is installed from the partner valve to the DPCV and allows the flow pressure to act upon the top of the valve diaphragm. The spring within the valve is set by the installer, using an allen key, to deliver a set circuit pressure loss. The diaphragm along with the spring act together to react to system changes and to keep this constant pressure loss. Back Back Next Next - Page39

    39. A Final Review Common applications for DPCV’s are: -Under-floor heating manifolds (as pictured) -Radiator circuits -Heat interface unit -Circuits with radiant panels Danfoss recommend the installation of DPCV’s on all branches of the system. Back Back Next Next - Page40

    40. A Final Review Danfoss ASV-PV valves are a compact, high performance valve, available in sizes ranging from 15-100mm, and pressure spring ranges from as low as 5 kPa and up to 100 kPa. They incorporate three services in one. Acting as a differential pressure control valve, an isolation valve, and a drain point. Danfoss ASV-I partner valves are the ideal accompaniment to our Differential Pressure Control Valves. Back Back Next Next - Page41

    41. Final Review Congratulations for completing your third training module! You now understand all that is required to select, and specify Danfoss balancing valves. Once you have completed three modules you can apply to Danfoss Randall for your ‘Continuous Professional Development’ Certificate. For more information on Danfoss products or for Danfoss-Randall’s contact details please visit our website at: www.danfoss-randall.co.uk Thank you for your time. Start Start - Page42