Cell Energy. Photosynthesis and Respiration. Section 1. Thermodynamics Metabolism Photosynthesis cellular respiration Adenosine Triphosphate. Energy objectives:. 1. Explain that living things need energy to fight entropy , grow, develop, maintain homeostasis,and move etc.
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1. Explain that living things need energy to fight entropy, grow, develop, maintain homeostasis,and move etc.
The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics states that all things move toward disorder (entropy) spontaneously! Livings things maintain order! This requires lots of energy!
The ultimate source of this energy is…
Form bonds in organic molecules like glucose.
Be able to:
Write the equation for photosynthesis:
6CO2 + 6H2O light C6H12O6 + 6O2
Write the equation for respiration:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O
Know that when oxygen is present it is called aerobic respiration and is much more efficient at producing ATP
and that when oxygen is not present
it is called anaerobic when no oxygen is used and it is less efficient at producing ATP.
stores energy for easy use within the cell.
ATP is formed when a phosphate group is added to ADP.
When ATP is broken down, ADP and phosphate are formed and energy is released.
Organisms that can not use sunlight directly obtain energy by consuming plants or other organisms that have consumed plants.
They are called Heterotrophs!!!
Photosynthesis is the process by which cells use light energy to make simple sugars.
AMP + P = ADP
ADP + P = ATP
ATP = ADP + ENERGY
8. Where in the ATP molecule is the energy stored? _______________________________________________________
9. How does ATP release energy? _____________________________________________________________________
10. Write the equation that shows the release of energy from ATP. ___________________________________________ ________________________________________
11. What is the main role that ATP plays within a cell? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________
12. Why are the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration considered a cycle? ___________________________
8. Where in the ATP molecule is the energy stored? In the chemical bonds
9. How does ATP release energy? Energy is released when the bonds between the phosphates are broken.
10. Write the equation that shows the release of energy from ATP. ATP ADP + P
11. What is the main role that ATP plays within a cell? When coupled with other chemical reactions, it supplies energy for activation for many chemical reactions.
12. Why are the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration considered a cycle? The products of one are the reactants of the other, they supply each other with what is needed!
Chlorophyll - absorbs violet, blue and red light (reflects green) –
The TWO most common Types of Chlorophylls are designated Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b.
A new kind of chlorophyll that catches sunlight from just beyond the red end of the visible light spectrum has been discovered. The new pigment extends the known range of light that is usable by most photosynthetic organisms. Harnessing this pigment’s power could lead to biofuel-generating algae that are super-efficient, using a greater spread of sunlight than thought possible.
6CO2 + 6H2O + LIGHT ENERGY C6H12O6 + 6O2
2. What are the reactants of photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O
3. What are the products of photosynthesis? C6H12O6 + 6O2
4. What is the main purpose of photosynthesis? To use sunlight as an energy source to make organic molecules from inorganic molecules.
5. What happens in the light dependent reactions? Sunlight is converted into ATP and NADPH bonds and water is split producing oxygen
6. What happens in the Calvin cycle? Carbon dioxide is bonded together with hydrogens using the APAT and NADPH as energy from the light reactions to make glucose.
6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight C6H12O6 + 6O2 , where does the energy from the sun go at the end of the chemical reaction? into the bonds of the glucose molecules
Fill in the blanks below to show what occurs during the light reactions:
Light causes electrons in photosystem II to go into a high energy state.
water is split, releasing an electron into the electron transport system, a hydrogen ion into the thylakoid, and oxygen as a waste product.
electrons are moved from photosystem II to photosystem I, which absorbs the light and moves excited electrons along electron carriers again and finally to NADP, forming NADPH.
ATP is made when protons from water build up inside the thylakoid and then diffuse through ATP synthase channels.
The ATP and NADPH produced during the light reactions are used to produce organic molecules during the Calvin cycle.
3 molecules of NADH
1 molecule of FADH2
1 molecule of GTP/ ATP
ELECTRON TRANSPORT: The real energy producer!!!! The last electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is OXYGEN.
It combines with hydrogen and forms water that is released.
NADH can produce 3 ATP,
from FADH2 produce 2 ATP
and 1 GTP equals 1 ATP.
Fermentation occurs. ANAEROBIC
Lactic Acid forms when oxygen is not available.
Not very efficient!! 2 ATP
1. What is the equation for aerobic respiration?_
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2+ 6H2O + (ATP)
2. What are the reactants for aerobic respiration? C6H12O6 + 6O2
3. What are the products of aerobic respiration? 6CO2+ 6H2O
4. What are the products of anaerobic respiration? CO2 alcohol or lactic acid
5. What is the main purpose of cellular respiration? To convert the energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules such as glucose into a more useable form such as ATP.
9. Large molecules contain energy in the chemical bonds. The cell must break these bonds in an orderly manner in order to retrieve the energy in the form of ATP. What process is used in the cell to convert these organic molecules into ATP molecules? Cellular respiration
2 pyruvic acid molecules.
2. How is NADH produced during glycolysis? When hydrogen ions combine with NAD as glucose is split into two 3 carbon molecules
6. When acetyl CoA combines with a 4-carbon compound, citric acid is produced.
7. As citric acid is broken down, 2 molecules of CO2 are released and 1 ATP, 3 _NADH, and 1 _FADH2_ are made.
8. For each glucose molecule, how many turns of the Krebs cycle happen? 2 _
9. Which energy carriers are used during electron transport? NADH and FADH2
10. What type of energy is produced during electron transport? ATP chemical bond energy
12. Which part of cellular respiration is anaerobic? Glycolysis is anaerobic because it does not require oxygen. Which is aerobic? The krebs and electron transport chain are aerobic because of the oxygen at the end of the transport chain.
13. How many total ATP are produced per glucose?38 If oxygen is not available for aerobic respiration, what happens? Anaerobic respiration occurs or fermentation. Lactic acid or alcohol are the end products.
2. Which process, photosynthesis or respiration stores energy?_photosynthesis
3. Which process, photosynthesis or respiration releases energy? Respiration
4. How are the equations for photosynthesis and respiration related? They are the reverse except for the light needed in photosynthesis.
SC.912.L.18.6 Discuss the role of anaerobic respiration in living things and in human society.
3. Yeast and some bacteria use another anaerobic pathway besides the lactic acid one. What is it and how can the products be used in society? Fermentation to produce alcohol
6CO2 + 6H2O + LIGHT ENERGY C6H12O6 + 6O2
CELLULAR RESPIRATION EQUATION:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY RELEASED(ATP)
respiration. When oxygen is not present, NAD+ is recycled
during the anaerobic process of fermentation.
C3 plants are the so called “ normal” plants that use rubisco to add CO2 to ribulose biphosphate producing a 3 carbon compound.
If it is hot, stomata close, carbon dioxide levels drop and oxygen is bonded to the Calvin cycle instead of CO2 . CO2 is released and this is called photorespiration.
It makes no ATP, in fact it uses ATP
Essential knowledge 2.A.2: Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological processes.
Evidence of student learning is a demonstrated understanding of each of the following:
3. When electrons are transferred between molecules in a sequence of reactions as they pass through the ETC, an electrochemical gradient of hydrogen ions (protons) across the thykaloid membrane is established.
5. The energy captured in the light reactions as ATP and NADPH powers the production of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide in the Calvin cycle, which occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast.
1. Use the study section on Mastering biology to look at the chromatography of pigments and how they can be separated. What is the evolutionary benefit of having more than one pigment in a plant/photosystem?
4. What basic methods/structures do both photosynthesis and respiration have in common?
Linear electron flow (photophosphorylation) produces ATP and NADPH (PSII to PS I)
Be able to write the equation for photosynthesis and tell what part is the light and what part is the non-light.