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Cell Energy. Photosynthesis and Respiration. Section 1. Thermodynamics Metabolism Photosynthesis cellular respiration Adenosine Triphosphate. Energy objectives:. 1. Explain that living things need energy to fight entropy , grow, develop, maintain homeostasis,and move etc.

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cell energy

Cell Energy

Photosynthesis

and

Respiration

section 1
Section 1
  • Thermodynamics
  • Metabolism
  • Photosynthesis
  • cellular respiration
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
energy objectives
Energy objectives:

1. Explain that living things need energy to fight entropy, grow, develop, maintain homeostasis,and move etc.

The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics states that all things move toward disorder (entropy) spontaneously! Livings things maintain order! This requires lots of energy!

The ultimate source of this energy is…

metabolism
Metabolism
  • Living things break down things, which often releases energy.: catabolism
  • Living things build up things, which often requires energy: anabolism
  • Together these processes are known as metabolism.
photosynthesis captures this energy of the sun and transfers it to
Photosynthesis captures this energy of the sun and transfers it to

Form bonds in organic molecules like glucose.

Be able to:

Write the equation for photosynthesis:

6CO2 + 6H2O light C6H12O6 + 6O2

during photosynthesis
During photosynthesis:
  • energy produced by splitting water in the light dependent reactions is used to bond Carbon dioxide into glucose (sugar) in the light independent reactions
slide9
Explain that energy is stored in an ATP molecule in the phosphate to phosphate bonds and how it can be released when those bonds are broken producing ADP + P + energy.
this can be accomplished by respiration
This can be accomplished by Respiration
  • Which transfers the energy in the chemical bonds of organic molecules like glucose and stores it in the bonds of molecules like ATP where it is more easily released when needed by the cell for other chemical reactions.
  • Glucose + oxygen yields carbon dioxide + water plus ATP
respiration
Respiration

Write the equation for respiration:

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O

respiration starts in the cytoplasm and finishes in the mitochondrion
Respiration starts in the cytoplasm and finishes in the mitochondrion

Know that when oxygen is present it is called aerobic respiration and is much more efficient at producing ATP

and that when oxygen is not present

it is called anaerobic when no oxygen is used and it is less efficient at producing ATP.

slide13
ATP is the molecule that

stores energy for easy use within the cell.

ATP is formed when a phosphate group is added to ADP.

When ATP is broken down, ADP and phosphate are formed and energy is released.

slide15
Green organisms trap the energy in sun light and store it in the bonds of certain molecules for later use. They are called Autotrophs.

Organisms that can not use sunlight directly obtain energy by consuming plants or other organisms that have consumed plants.

They are called Heterotrophs!!!

Photosynthesis is the process by which cells use light energy to make simple sugars.

slide16
Chlorophyll in the chloroplast of plant cells “traps” light energy needed for photosynthesis.
  • The light reactions of photosynthesis produce ATP and NADPH and result in the splitting of water molecules.
  • The reactions of the carbon cycle make carbohydrates using CO2 along with ATP and NADPH from the light reactions.
slide18
In cellular respiration, cells break down carbohydrates to release energy.
  • The first stage of cellular respiration, Glycolysis, takes place in the cytoplasm and does not require oxygen.
  • The citric acid cycle takes place in mitochondria and requires oxygen.
making atp
MAKING ATP:

AMP + P = ADP

ADP + P = ATP

ATP = ADP + ENERGY

  • ATP SYNTHASE is the enzyme that attaches the third phosphate to the molecule. This enzyme is located in the thylakoid membrane and is like a rotary engine. The movement of H+ ions through it spins the enzyme, providing the energy to bond a P on to the ADP.
autotroph or heterotroph
Autotroph or Heterotroph?
  • Do they “make” their own energy source?
autotrophs producers
Autotrophs/producers
  • Autotrophs, such as plants, use photosynthesis to convert light energy from the Sun into Chemical energy, which is stored in Carbohydrates and other Organic Compounds.
heterotrophs
Heterotrophs
  • Both Autotrophs and Heterotrophs depend on these Organic Compounds for the energy to Power Cellular Activities
sc 912 l 18 10 connect the role of adenosine triphosphate atp to energy transfers within the cell
SC. 912.L.18.10 Connect the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to energy transfers within the cell
what are the three parts of atp
What are the three parts of ATP?
  • Ribose, sugar, 2 phosphates
  • Sugar, 1 phosphate and a nitrogen base
  • Adenine, sugar and 3 phosphates
  • Adenine, deoxyribose and 3 phosphates.
what is the molecule that most often used as a source of energy for chemical reactions in the cell
What is the molecule that most often used as a source of energy for chemical reactions in the cell?
  • Glucose
  • ATP
  • ADP
  • NADPH
  • Starch
what is the original source of energy for all living things on earth
What is the original source of energy for all living things on earth?
  • Fossil fuels
  • Uranium
  • Sunlight
  • Wind
  • Hydroelectric
1 why do living things need energy
1. Why do living things need energy?
  • To make new cells.
  • To break down
  • To stay organized
  • All of these are ways to fight entropy and are correct.
what does the 2 nd law of thermodynamics say about entropy
What does the 2nd law of thermodynamics say about entropy?
  • It takes energy to maintain entropy
  • All things move toward entropy spontaneously.
  • Living things have lots of entropy.
what kind of organisms can use sunlight to make food for themselves
What kind of organisms can use sunlight to make food for themselves?
  • Heterotrophs
  • Autotrophs
  • Consumers
  • Decomposers
what are the catabolic and anabolic reactions of the cell together known as
What are the catabolic and anabolic reactions of the cell together known as?
  • Catabolism
  • Anabolism
  • Metabolism
what is required to fight the entropy that the 2nd law says will spontaneously occur
What is required to fight the entropy that the 2nd law says will spontaneously occur?
  • ATP
  • Catabolism
  • Anabolism
  • Photosynthesis
  • All of these might work
slide35
7. What does ATP become when it loses a phosphate group? _______

8. Where in the ATP molecule is the energy stored? _______________________________________________________

9. How does ATP release energy? _____________________________________________________________________

10. Write the equation that shows the release of energy from ATP. ___________________________________________ ________________________________________

11. What is the main role that ATP plays within a cell? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

12. Why are the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration considered a cycle? ___________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

slide36
7. What does ATP become when it loses a phosphate group? ADP

8. Where in the ATP molecule is the energy stored? In the chemical bonds

9. How does ATP release energy? Energy is released when the bonds between the phosphates are broken.

10. Write the equation that shows the release of energy from ATP. ATP ADP + P

11. What is the main role that ATP plays within a cell? When coupled with other chemical reactions, it supplies energy for activation for many chemical reactions.

12. Why are the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration considered a cycle? The products of one are the reactants of the other, they supply each other with what is needed!

section 2 photosynthesis
Section 2 Photosynthesis
  • Vocabulary:
  • 1. Thylakoid
  • 2. Granum
  • 3. Stroma
  • 4. Pigment
  • 5. NADP
  • 6. Calvin cycle
  • 7. Light Reactions
slide38

2. Granum

  • 1. Thylakoid

3. Stroma

4. Pigment

photosynthesis1
Photosynthesis
  • the process by which plants make sugar from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide):
slide41
Sunlight shines through the top of the leaf and reaches the next layer of cells. 
  • The light energy is trapped by the chlorophyll in the chloroplasts. 
  • In the chloroplasts, a process that uses water changes the light energy into a kind of chemical energy. This chemical energy is stored in the chloroplasts. The electrons in chlorophyll are excited and travel down electron transport chains!
slide42
Air enters the leaf through the stomata and moves into tiny spaces around the food-making cells in the leaf.
  • Carbon dioxide from the air passes through the cell walls and membranes of the cells. 
  • Carbon dioxide enters the chloroplasts where the previously stored chemical energy converts the carbon dioxide into sugar.
slide43
Phloem tubes in the plant carry sugar from the leaf cells to other parts of the plant, such as roots, stems, and fruits.  
  • Cells in these parts of the tree store some of the sugar
stage 1 called the light dependent reactions
STAGE 1 - CALLED THE LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTIONS.
  • Energy is Captured from Sunlight.
  • Water is Split into Hydrogen Ions, Electrons, and Oxygen (O2).
  • The O2 Diffuses out of the Chloroplasts (Byproduct).
light is captured by pigments in chloroplasts
Light is Captured by Pigments in Chloroplasts

Chlorophyll - absorbs violet, blue and red light (reflects green) –

The TWO most common Types of Chlorophylls are designated Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b.

chlorophyll f
Chlorophyll F

A new kind of chlorophyll that catches sunlight from just beyond the red end of the visible light spectrum has been discovered. The new pigment extends the known range of light that is usable by most photosynthetic organisms. Harnessing this pigment’s power could lead to biofuel-generating algae that are super-efficient, using a greater spread of sunlight than thought possible.

why are plants green
Why are plants green?
  • http://www.nsf.gov/news/mmg/mmg_disp.cfm?med_id=70873
slide56
Carotenoids - absorb blue and green light (reflect yellow, orange, or red). Carotenoids are visible in the fall, when plants stop producing chlorophyll, leaves take on a yellow/red colorPhycocyanins - absorb green and yellow light (reflect blue or purple)Xanthophyll - type of carotenoid that reflects yellow light (seen in the autumn)
stage 2
STAGE 2
  • - The Light Energy is Converted to Chemical Energy, which is Temporarily Stored in ATP and NADPH.
stage 3 called the calvin cycle
STAGE 3 - CALLED THE CALVIN CYCLE.
  • . The Chemical Energy Stored in ATP and NADPH powers the formation of Organic Compounds (Sugars),
  • Using Carbon Dioxide, CO2.
what is the end result
What is the end result?
  • Oxygen
  • Carbohydrates
required notes
Required Notes
  • The following is a summary of the required notes from this section on photosynthesis.
write the equation for photosynthesis
Write the equation for Photosynthesis:

LIGHT

  • 6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2
write the equation for respiration
Write the equation for respiration:
  • C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
photosynthesis2
PHOTOSYNTHESIS:
  • PLANTS CONVERT THE ENERGY OF SUNLIGHT INTO THE ENERGY OF CHEMICAL BONDS IN CARBOHYDRATES.
light reactions
LIGHT REACTIONS:
  • LIGHT STRIKES PIGMENTS, WATER IS SPLIT INTO HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN, ATP AND NADPH ARE PRODUCED.
carbon fixation
CARBON FIXATION:
  • HYDROGEN IS COMBINED WITH CARBON DIOXIDE TO FORM CARBOHYDRATES.
slide69
The CO2 goes into making the carbohydrate
  • The H2O provides the Oxygen that is given off and the Hydrogen used to make the carbohydrate.
slide70
The reactants must be in constant supply and the temperature must be in favorable ranges for photosynthesis to occur. If they are not, the rate of photosynthesis will be affected.
pigments
PIGMENTS:
  • found in plastids, such as the chloroplast.
  • Molecules that absorb light and reflect unused light.
  • Chlorophyll a and b
  • Carotenoids
  • Xanthophylls
slide72
Water is used in the light reaction, split, provides electrons and H+ ions, and provides the oxygen that is released from plants.
  • Carbon dioxide is used in the Calvin cycle to produce carbohydrate (PGAL) by adding H+ ions to the carbon.
  • The original source of energy for this is the SUN
slide73
1. What is the equation of photosynthesis?

6CO2 +  6H2O + LIGHT ENERGY    C6H12O6  + 6O2

2. What are the reactants of photosynthesis?

6CO2 +  6H2O

3. What are the products of photosynthesis? C6H12O6  + 6O2

4. What is the main purpose of photosynthesis? To use sunlight as an energy source to make organic molecules from inorganic molecules.

5. What happens in the light dependent reactions? Sunlight is converted into ATP and NADPH bonds and water is split producing oxygen

6. What happens in the Calvin cycle? Carbon dioxide is bonded together with hydrogens using the APAT and NADPH as energy from the light reactions to make glucose.

slide74
7. Where in the cell does photosynthesis occur? Chloroplast
  • 8. What pigment is responsible for capturing most of the sunlight energy for the process of photosynthesis? Chlorophyll_Are there other pigments in plants? yes What is the advantage of having different pigments? different wavelengths of light can be used for photosynthesis.
  • 9. Where does the oxygen that is released in photosynthesis come from? When water is split in the light reaction
  • 10. What 2 energy storing molecules are made after the light reactions? ATP and NADPH
slide75
11. What is the source of carbon for the glucose in the equation for photosynthesis? carbon dioxide
  • 12. In the chemical reaction

6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight C6H12O6 + 6O2 , where does the energy from the sun go at the end of the chemical reaction? into the bonds of the glucose molecules

  • 13. The ability to transfer the energy of the sun into chemical bond energy is completed by a process known as what? photosynthesis
slide76
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hj_WKgnL6MI&feature=youtube_gdata_playerhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hj_WKgnL6MI&feature=youtube_gdata_player
the process
The process:
  • Fill in the blanks below to show what occurs during the light reactions:
  • Light causes _________________ in photosystem II to go into a high energy state.
  • __________________ is split, releasing an _______________________ into the electron transport system, a ______________________ into the thylakoid, and _________________ as a waste product.
  • _______________________ are moved from photosystem II to photosystem I, which absorbs the light and moves excited electrons along electron carriers again and finally to ________________, forming NADPH.
  • _____________________ is made when protons from water build up inside the thylakoid and then diffuse through ATP synthases channels.
  • The ____________________ and ___________________ produced during the light reactions are used to produce organic molecules during the Calvin cycle.
the process1
The process:

Fill in the blanks below to show what occurs during the light reactions:

Light causes electrons in photosystem II to go into a high energy state.

water is split, releasing an electron into the electron transport system, a hydrogen ion into the thylakoid, and oxygen as a waste product.

electrons are moved from photosystem II to photosystem I, which absorbs the light and moves excited electrons along electron carriers again and finally to NADP, forming NADPH.

ATP is made when protons from water build up inside the thylakoid and then diffuse through ATP synthase channels.

The ATP and NADPH produced during the light reactions are used to produce organic molecules during the Calvin cycle.

1 why is the calvin cycle referred to as the light independent reaction
1. Why is the Calvin cycle referred to as the light-independent reaction?
  • Fill in the blanks below to show what occurs during the Calvin cycle. See page 226
    • ____________ combines with six 5-carbon compounds to make twelve 3-carbon molecules.
    • The chemical energy in __________________ and ___________________ is passed to the 3-carbon molecules.
    • Two of the 3-carbon molecules are used to make ___________________ and other organic compounds.
    • The enzyme ____________________ changes ten 3-carbon molecules into six 5-carbon molecules to continue the cycle.
slide80
1. Why is the Calvin cycle referred to as the light-independent reaction? No light is needed for this process to occur.
  • 6 carbon dioxide molecules combine with six 5-carbon compounds to make twelve 3-carbon molecules.
  • The chemical energy in ATP and NADPH is passed to the 3-carbon molecules.
  • Two of the 3-carbon molecules are used to make glucose and other organic compounds.
  • The enzyme rubisco changes ten 3-carbon molecules into six 5-carbon molecules to continue the cycle.
cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
  • Takes place in the mitochondria
glucose song
Glucose song!
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jJvAL-iiLnQ&feature=youtube_gdata_player
vocabulary
Vocabulary:
  • 1. Anaerobic
  • 2. Aerobic respiration
  • 3. Glycolysis
  • 4. Krebs cycle
  • 5. Fermentation
cellular respiration1
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
  • . CELLULAR RESPIRATION:
  • Releases the energy stored in glucose into ATP, a useable form of energy.
energy to do work
Energy to do work!
  • By Breaking Down Organic Molecules into simpler molecules, CELLS RELEASE ENERGY.
atp is the main energy currency of cells
ATP is the Main Energy Currency of Cells.
  • Some of the energy is used to make ATP from ADP and Phosphate. 
stage 1
STAGE 1
  • - Cellular Respiration BEGINS with a Biochemical Pathway called GLYCOLYSIS, that takes place in the Cells Cytosol or cytoplasm,
  • This yields a relatively Small amount of ATP and does not require oxygen.
glycolysis notes
GLYCOLYSIS notes:
  • GLYCOLYSIS: The first part of respiration occurs with out oxygen.
  • This changes glucose in several steps to form Pyruvic Acid and 2 ATP
  • The energy needed to start this reaction is two ATP; it makes 4 ATP so the net gain is 2 ATP. It also produces 2 molecules of NADH
glycolysis
glycolysis
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3GTjQTqUuOw&feature=youtube_gdata_player
stage 21
STAGE 2
  • The Second Stage of Cellular Respiration is called OXIDATIVE RESPIRATION, and follows Glycolysis. 
  • Oxidative because it uses oxygen!!
  • Oxidative Respiration takes place within the Mitochondria.  This is far more effective than Glycolysis at recovering energy from food molecules.
aerobic phase required
AEROBIC PHASE:(required)
  • Uses the pyruvic acid and OXYGEN
  • Krebs Cycle: Pyruvic acid breaks into carbon dioxide and a 2 carbon molecule called acetyl a
  • Coenzyme A bonds to the acetyl group ----- acetyl co A
  • Acetyl Co a enter the Krebs cycle, 9 steps change it.
krebs
Krebs
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KAjUsiZWywk&feature=youtube_gdata_player
slide94

2 CO2 are released,

3 molecules of NADH

1 molecule of FADH2

1 molecule of GTP/ ATP

slide95
OXIDATIVE RESPIRATION IS THE METHOD BY WHICH PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS GET THE MAJORITY OF THEIR ENERGY.
slide96

ELECTRON TRANSPORT: The real energy producer!!!! The last electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is OXYGEN.

It combines with hydrogen and forms water that is released.

(Required)

electron transport animation
Electron transport animation
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kN5MtqAB_Yc&feature=youtube_gdata_player
slide98
Each pair of electrons from

NADH can produce 3 ATP,

from FADH2 produce 2 ATP

and 1 GTP equals 1 ATP.

  • This means that a total of 38 ATP can be made from one molecule of GLUCOSE.
there are two types of cellular respiration
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION:
  •   AEROBIC (PRESENCE OF OXYGEN) AND
  • ANAEROBIC (ABSENCE OF OXYGEN) RESPIRATION OR FERMENTATION.
aerobic is best
Aerobic is best!!!
  • Aerobic Respiration produces a much Larger Amount of ATP, UP TO 20 TIMES MORE ATP PRODUCED.
required
required
  • When oxygen is not available:

Fermentation occurs. ANAEROBIC

Lactic Acid forms when oxygen is not available.

Not very efficient!! 2 ATP

anaerobic is not as good
Anaerobic is not as good.
  • There are TWO TYPES of Anaerobic Respiration or Fermentation:
  • LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION

AND

  • ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION.
anaerobic explained
Anaerobic explained…
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FPXOKHkLJI4&feature=youtube_gdata_player
lactic acid hurts
Lactic acid hurts!!!
  • DURING EXERCISE, BREATHING CANNOT PROVIDE YOUR BODY WITH ALL THE OXYGEN IT NEEDS FOR AEROBIC RESPIRATION. 
  • WHEN MUSCLES RUN OUT OF OXYGEN, THE CELLS SWITCH TO LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION
slide105
The side effects of Lactic Acid Fermentation is Muscle Fatigue, Pain, Cramps, and you feel Soreness
alcoholic fermentation
Alcoholic fermentation
  • Bakers use Alcoholic Fermentation of YEAST to make Bread.
  • Alcoholic Fermentation is used to make wine, beer, and the ethanol added to gasoline to make gasohol
slide107
Alcoholic fermentation: ANAEROBIC
  • Bacteria and yeast can convert the pyruvic acid into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
oxygen
Oxygen!!!!!
  • Oxygen SERVES as the FINAL Acceptor of Electrons. 
  • By Accepting Electrons from the last molecule in the Electron Transport Chain, Oxygen allows additional electrons to pass along the chain.  Allowing ATP to continue to be synthesized.
cellular respiration equation
CELLULAR RESPIRATION EQUATION:
  • C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2+ 6H2O +  (ATP)
  • ENERGY RELEASED
section 3 cellular respiration
Section 3 Cellular Respiration

1. What is the equation for aerobic respiration?_

C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2+ 6H2O +  (ATP)

2. What are the reactants for aerobic respiration? C6H12O6 + 6O2

3. What are the products of aerobic respiration? 6CO2+ 6H2O

4. What are the products of anaerobic respiration? CO2 alcohol or lactic acid

5. What is the main purpose of cellular respiration? To convert the energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules such as glucose into a more useable form such as ATP.

  • Where in the cell does respiration occur? Glycolysis in the cytoplasm, then it finishes in the membrane of the mitochondrion
slide112
Is the process with or without oxygen more efficient at producing ATP? It is most efficient with oxygen, 38 ATP with, only 2 without.
  • Which part of the process makes the most ATP? Electron transport

9. Large molecules contain energy in the chemical bonds. The cell must break these bonds in an orderly manner in order to retrieve the energy in the form of ATP. What process is used in the cell to convert these organic molecules into ATP molecules? Cellular respiration

slide113
Specific Process questions:
  • During glycolysis, what is glucose broken down into?

2 pyruvic acid molecules.

2. How is NADH produced during glycolysis? When hydrogen ions combine with NAD as glucose is split into two 3 carbon molecules

  • What is the net ATP gain during glycolysis? 2ATP
  • Where in the cell does pyruvate go after glycolysis is complete? Into the mitochondria
slide114
5. Before pyruvate enters the Krebs cycle, __carbon dioxide____ is released and NADH is produced. __

6. When acetyl CoA combines with a 4-carbon compound, citric acid is produced.

7. As citric acid is broken down, 2 molecules of CO2 are released and 1 ATP, 3 _NADH, and 1 _FADH2_ are made.

8. For each glucose molecule, how many turns of the Krebs cycle happen? 2 _

9. Which energy carriers are used during electron transport? NADH and FADH2

10. What type of energy is produced during electron transport? ATP chemical bond energy

slide115
11. How is water produced during electron transport?when oxygen accepts the last electron, protons and electrons transfer to form water.

12. Which part of cellular respiration is anaerobic? Glycolysis is anaerobic because it does not require oxygen. Which is aerobic? The krebs and electron transport chain are aerobic because of the oxygen at the end of the transport chain.

13. How many total ATP are produced per glucose?38 If oxygen is not available for aerobic respiration, what happens? Anaerobic respiration occurs or fermentation. Lactic acid or alcohol are the end products.

slide116
1. What is true about the products of photosynthesis and the reactants of respiration? They are the same

2. Which process, photosynthesis or respiration stores energy?_photosynthesis

3. Which process, photosynthesis or respiration releases energy? Respiration

4. How are the equations for photosynthesis and respiration related? They are the reverse except for the light needed in photosynthesis.

  • What method of making ATP do both Photosynthesis and respiration processes have in common? ( think membranes) electron transport chains in the membranes.

SC.912.L.18.6 Discuss the role of anaerobic respiration in living things and in human society.

  • When does lactic acid form in humans? Muscles when overworked and anaerobic processes take over.
  • What is a commercial use for an anaerobic byproduct? Alcohol and cheese products.

3. Yeast and some bacteria use another anaerobic pathway besides the lactic acid one. What is it and how can the products be used in society? Fermentation to produce alcohol

slide118
PHOTOSYNTHESIS EQUATION:

6CO2 +  6H2O + LIGHT ENERGY    C6H12O6  + 6O2

CELLULAR RESPIRATION EQUATION:

C6H12O6 + 6O2    6CO2 +  6H2O +  ENERGY RELEASED(ATP)

photosystems i ii
Photosystems I & II
  • Photosystem II - photons split water molecules (producing O2), electrons produced from the split travel down electron transport chain. Energy provided in the transport chain is used to make ATP from ADP
  • Photosystem I - photons boost electrons to a higher energy state, electrons travel down electron transport chain, energy is used to make NADPH from NADP.
  • The ATP and the NADPH are used for the next main step, the Calvin cycle, or "Light independent reactions" - also called the Dark Reaction
slide121
Quiz
  • 1. Draw a molecule of ATP
  • 2. Where is energy stored in an ATP molecule?
  • 3. What does ATP become when it loses a phosphate?
  • 4. What is the formula for glucose?
  • 5. where does photosynthesis occur in a cell?
  • 6. Where does respiration occur in a cell?
  • 7. List 2 reasons living things need energy?
  • 8. Do plants use both photosynthesis and respiration?
  • 9. Do animals use both photosynthesis and respiration?
  • 10. Write the equation for photosynthesis.
energy and living things
Energy and Living Things
  • Energy from sunlight flows through living systems, from
  • autotrophs to heterotrophs.
  • Photosynthesis and cellular respiration form a cycle
  • because one process uses the products of the other.
  • ATP supplies cells with energy needed for metabolism.
photosynthesis3
Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis has three stages. First, energy is captured
  • from sunlight. Second, energy is temporarily stored in ATP
  • and NADPH. Third, organic compounds are made using
  • ATP, NADPH, and carbon dioxide.
  • Pigments absorb light energy during photosynthesis.
  • Electrons excited by light travel through electron transport
  • chains, in which ATP and NADPH are produced.
slide124
Through carbon dioxide fixation, often by the Calvin cycle,
  • carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is used to make organic compounds, which store energy.
  • Photosynthesis is directly affected by environmental factors such as the intensity of light, the concentration of carbon dioxide, and temperature.
cellular respiration2
Cellular Respiration
  • Cellular respiration has two stages. First, glucose is broken down to pyruvate during glycolysis, making some ATP.
  • Second, a large amount of ATP is made during aerobic

respiration. When oxygen is not present, NAD+ is recycled

during the anaerobic process of fermentation.

slide127
The Krebs cycle is a series of reactions that produce energy-storing molecules during aerobic respiration.
  • During aerobic respiration, large amounts of ATP are made in an electron transport chain.
  • When oxygen is not present, fermentation follows glycolysis, regenerating NAD+ needed for glycolysis to continue.
comparison of chemiosmosis in mitochondria and chloroplast
Comparison of chemiosmosis in mitochondria and chloroplast
  • In both organelles electron transport chains pump protons across a membrane from low H ion concentrations to high H ion concentrations. The protons must then diffuse back across the membrane through ATP synthase (integral proteins) which converts ADP to ATP.
alternative carbon fixation processes
Alternative carbon fixation processes
  • Water conservation is a serious issue for land plants. Plants have evolved to include many adaptations to prevent water loss…waxy cuticle, stomata on the underside of the leaf, shape of the leaf to name a few but the way CO2 enters the cell can limit the rate of photosynthesis. Hot dry day… the stomata close to prevent water loss, but photosynthesis will slow as well.
photorespiration
photorespiration

C3 plants are the so called “ normal” plants that use rubisco to add CO2 to ribulose biphosphate producing a 3 carbon compound.

If it is hot, stomata close, carbon dioxide levels drop and oxygen is bonded to the Calvin cycle instead of CO2 . CO2 is released and this is called photorespiration.

It makes no ATP, in fact it uses ATP

slide131
C4
  • Form a 4 carbon sugar first.
  • Sugar cane and corn are examples
  • PEP carboxylate in the mesophyll cells makes a 4 carbon molecule, this compound conveys the atoms of CO2 into the bundle sheath cells via plasmodesmata.
  • Here CO2 is released and enters the Calvin cycle.
cam plants
CAM plants
  • Succulent plants open stomata at night, close them in day light.
  • Plants store organic acids in vacuoles until morning.
  • Crassulation acid metabolism = CAM
accessory pigments
Accessory pigments
  • Broaden spectrum but photo protection is the most important function of pigments such as carotenoids. They interact with oxygen - antioxidants!
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Essential knowledge 2.A.2: Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological processes.

  • d. The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis in eukaryotes involve a series of coordinated reaction pathways that capture free energy present in light to yield ATP and NADPH, which power the production of organic molecules.
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Evidence of student learning is a demonstrated understanding of each of the following:

  • 1. During photosynthesis, chlorophylls absorb free energy from light, boosting electrons to a higher energy level in Photosystems I and II.
  • 2. Photosystems I and II are embedded in the internal membranes of chloroplasts (thylakoids) and are connected by the transfer of higher free energy electrons through an electron transport chain (ETC). [See also 4.A.2]
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3. When electrons are transferred between molecules in a sequence of reactions as they pass through the ETC, an electrochemical gradient of hydrogen ions (protons) across the thykaloid membrane is established.

  • 4. The formation of the proton gradient is a separate process, but it is linked to the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate via ATP synthase.
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5. The energy captured in the light reactions as ATP and NADPH powers the production of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide in the Calvin cycle, which occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast.

  • e. Photosynthesis first evolved in prokaryotic organisms; scientific evidence supports that prokaryotic (bacterial) photosynthesis was responsible for the production of an oxygenated atmosphere; prokaryotic photosynthetic pathways were the foundation of eukaryotic photosynthesis
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Untested: not on the College Board national AP Biology exam:

  • ✘ No specific cofactors or coenzymes are within the scope of the course and the AP Exam.
  • ✘ Specific steps, names of enzymes and intermediates of the pathways for these processes are beyond the scope of the course and the AP Exam.
  • ✘ Memorization of the steps in the Calvin cycle, the structure of the molecules and the names of enzymes (with the exception of ATP synthase) are beyond the scope of the course and the AP Exam.
  • ✘ Memorization of the steps in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, or of the structures of the molecules and the names of the enzymes involved, are beyond the scope of the course and the AP Exam.
  • ✘ The names of the specific electron carriers in the ETC are beyond the scope of the course and the AP Exam.
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1. Use the study section on Mastering biology to look at the chromatography of pigments and how they can be separated. What is the evolutionary benefit of having more than one pigment in a plant/photosystem?

  • 2. What are stoma? Where are they located? What is the evolutionary benefit of changing the location of them?
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4. What basic methods/structures do both photosynthesis and respiration have in common?

  • 5. Know the parts of photosynthesis, how the ATP and NADPH are produced.
  • 6. What are the methods that have evolved for plants in different climates?
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Linear electron flow (photophosphorylation) produces ATP and NADPH (PSII to PS I)

  • Hydrogen ions build up in the thylakoid space, come through the ATP synthase to form ATP
  • Carotenoids can serve as antioxidants and help shield plants from excess light energy damage done by oxidation
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Be able to write the equation for photosynthesis and tell what part is the light and what part is the non-light.

  • Explain the process and how the membrane is key to the process!!!! Just like in respiration!!!