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Uganda s experience with social exclusion

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Uganda s experience with social exclusion

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    1. Ugandas experience with social exclusion Presentation to the Ad Hoc Group Meeting on Developing supplementary targets and indicators to strengthen social inclusion, gender equality and health promotion in the millennium Development Goals, Addis Ababa, 7 9 May, 2008. By Stephen Kasaija

    2. Outline of the presentation Background on Uganda. The main groups that experience social exclusion in Uganda. The major forms of exclusion that they face and causes. Government initiatives to address the sources of exclusion and Suggestions on supplementary MDG targets and indicators to monitor the progress in social inclusion.

    3. Background Popn of Uganda - 24.2m of whom 51% female (2002 Census) Implementing PEAP or PRSP with PAF funding from HIPC targeting poverty eradication. Growth rates Av. 6%. Current PEAP talks of mainstreaming Social Protection. But no special basket of funds for SP. Poverty Head Count reduced from 56% in 1992 to 31.1% in 2006. Evidence from national household surveys suggest income inequality has been on a rising trend. Between 1997 and 2003, income inequality (measured by the Gini coefficient) increased from 0.347 to 0.428. However, there was some decline to 0.408 in 2005/6.

    4. Background Contd Inequality in Uganda has manifested itself in several dimensions and is a major cause of social exclusion. It is only the wealthiest 20% of Ugandans that have benefited most from growth and poverty reduction efforts. Inequality levels are persistently higher in urban areas than rural areas; The northern region remains relatively poorer than other regions of the country; Specific groups of women are poorer than their male counterparts; Households that are primarily engaged in subsistence crop production are poorer than others engaged in non-crop sectors; About 20% of the countrys households more than 7 million Ugandans live in chronic poverty;

    5. Socially excluded groups in Uganda Women 51% of the popn. Persons with disabilities -4% of the Popn. The elderly- 4% of the Popn but only 33% of these are literate. The youth 50% of the population. Children 56% of the Popn. Child labourers 600,000, 13% Orphans. Ethnic Minorities 160,799 pple from15 ethnic groups with less than 25,000 pple. The smallest group Vonoma has 119 pple. Batwa are only 6,705. Internally displaced groups- 1.7m Chronically Sick individuals e.g as a result of HIV/AIDS All these groups are over represented in Chronic poverty

    6. Major forms of exclusion faced and Causes Gender Based discrimination- Women Historically excluded from effective decision making, paid employment, education , ownership of Fixed assets such as land etc. Discrimination based on Ethnicity - No voice in decision making for minorities - cant influence political decisions. Have limited access to services. Discrimination based on Age -Youth and young people excluded in employment and politics. Discrimination based on physical Impairment and Disability. Regional and geographical exclusion-as a result of conflict and History -limited infrastructure and poverty eradication programmes. Because of poverty orphans and other vulnerable children, ethnic minorities, youths, people with disabilities, the internally displaced, the chronically ill and the elderly without support unable to fully access and enjoy the benefits of growth and the available public services

    7. Major forms of exclusion faced and Causes About 1.3 million children aged 6 to 12 years have been excluded from Primary Education despite its being Universal; Causes of exclusion of some children from Universal Primary Educ.: 1. Poverty related: Non-tuition costs (uniforms, scholastic materials, exam fees, contribution by parents); Absence of meals at schools; 2. Socio-Cultural causes Traditional and cultural practices such as occupation of communities e.g. fishing; The low value attached to education by some parents or guardians;

    8. Government initiatives to address the sources of exclusion Universal Primary Education (UPE) School feeding programme by WFP & MOES National Minimum Health Care Package Community led HIV/AIDS Initiative (CHAI) Northern Uganda Social Action Fund (NUSAF) National OVC Programme (NSPPI for OVC) Community Based Rehabilitation for PWDs Gender and Equity Budgeting initiative Proposed Social Cash transfer Scheme and Social Health Insurance

    9. Government initiatives to address the sources of exclusion The Northern Uganda Social Action Fund (NUSAF) project has 4 components; Vulnerable Groups Support (VGS) component finances sub-projects initiated by Widows, Orphans, the youth, PWDs, IDPs, PLWHA; By Aug 2006, a total of 178,670 people had benefited from 4,690 VGS sub-projects funded by NUSAF

    10. Government initiatives to address the sources of exclusion The National Minimum Health Care Package (NMHCP) has nine health care programmes: Control of communicable diseases; Integrated management of Childhood illnesses; Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights; Immunisation; Environmental Health; Health Education and Promotion; School Health; Epidemic and Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Reponses; and Improving Nutrition

    11. Government initiatives to address the sources of exclusion Comprehensive NMHCP is only available at functional Health Centre IV and in Hospitals; Although user fees for health services were abolished, 13% of sick people suffer without seeking medical attention (UNHS 2005/06); In 2005/06, about 1.4 million people who fell sick did not seek medical attention; Out of these, 32% or nearly 450,000 people cited cost as a hindrance to seeking medical attention.

    12. Suggested supplementary MDG targets and indicators to monitor progress in promoting social exclusion. 1. MDG 1. Eradication of Poverty and Hunger Suggested Indicator to measure progress on decent employment for all is: Proportion of PWDs, Youth, Elderly and women in paid formal employment. 2. MDG 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education: Proposed supplementary indicators by ECA to include gross enrolment at secondary and tertiary are good but calls for adjustment of Goal 2 to incorporate Secondary and tertiary education. Also the new indicators should be disaggregated by sex, age and disability. MDG 3. Promotion of Gender Equality and Women Empowerment. We agree with a new indicator on incidence of Sexual Gender Based Violence per 100,000 women/year. Would also be interested in an indicator on - SGBV conviction rates by type of offence. 4. MDG 5: Improve maternal health Proposed indicator: Percentage of female population within 10Km travel distance to the nearest emergency Obstetric care.

    13. I thank ECA for carrying out this project and all of you for the participation. It is out of Love as guided by 1Cor 13 that you think of the socially excluded. For God and My Country. Thank You.