Honors World History Section 3 Monarchy in England
Background head of the state had control over EVERYTHING. • Two prominent figures ruled England as monarchs but, despite their power, both Father (Henry VIII) and his daughter (Elizabeth I) had to learn to work with Parliament to fulfill their goals This was going on when Spain and France were asserting Absolute Monarchy Unlike these other countries, England’s monarchs had to compromise their power by consulting Parliament to secure funds for their endeavors.
Henry VIII- The Medieval Bachelor, Grand Prize….Death • The Act of Supremacy named the King of England as the head of the Church of England • Created during the reign of Henry VIII I WANT TO BE IN CHARGE OF EVERYTHING!!
Bloody Mary, Bloody Mary, Bloody… • AHHHH So Scary • Mary Tudor, Henry’s first daughter ruled England as a Catholic The Nine Days Queen A great-granddaughter of Henry VIII by his younger daughter Mary, Jane was a first-cousin-once-removed of Edward VI. The teenage King left her the Crown in his will
All in the Family • When Mary died in 1558, Elizabeth I inherited the crown and returned England to Anglican, English Protestant Following in the footsteps of her mother
Elizabeth I, authoritarian monarch • Not a typical quality of an absolute monarch, but very beneficial to her reign was Elizabeth’s willingness to let the members of Parliament speak their minds without fear of punishment. But do not be fooled, Elizabeth reinforced her rule with a zero tolerance policy In 1601 one of her favorite courtiers, the Duke of Essex questioned her authority and was publicly executed, warning other anarchists to curb their efforts.
Death Becomes Her • Elizabeth dies without an heir so her relative, the King of Scotland, James I became the King of England in 1603. • James I favored divine right (just like Philip II of Spain) =
Constant Fighting James I constantly conflicted with Parliament • James constantly conflicted with Parliament because of: • He was low on funds • He was from Scotland and was considered an outsider
I WILL NOT! • ThePuritanswere a strict Calvinists, who wanted to “purify” the English Church. • James saw them as a threat, so he didn’t pass many of the Puritans requests. • One reform James agreed to was the publication of an English version of the Bible known as the King James Bible Ok, maybe just this once
11 Year Tyranny on the Way • When James died in 1625 his son was crowned Charles I. • In 1628 Charles summoned Parliament to request money. • Parliament wouldn’t grant his requests until Charles signed a document, called the Petition of Right which placed limits on the king’s power, a direct challenge to absolute monarchy. • 1. King couldn’t levy taxes without Parliament’s approval • 2.Couldn’t imprison anyone without legal justification • 3. Force citizens to house soldiers • 4. Declare martial law in peace time.
Fine! Who Needs You?! • Charles dismissed Parliament and in 1629 decided to rule without consulting Parliament ever again. • Charles didn’t call Parliament into session for over a decade (11 years) until 1640 when he was so badly in debt because of religious rebellion in Scotland, that he had no choice.
O No He Didn’t • After being ignored for so long Parliament made Charles I agree to 2 rules that he must heed in the future: • Parliament must be called at least every three years • The king could no longer dismiss Parliament.
O, IT’S ON!!!!! • Charles I wages war on Parliament when a Puritan group within Parliament moved to abolish the appointment of bishops in the Anglican Church, which would diminish the kings power. • Charles led troops into the House of Commons to arrest leaders of that Puritan group, but the men had already escaped • This was the beginning of the English Civil War
Royalists/ Cavaliers mostly made up of wealthy nobles, were supporters of the king. • Without the support of Parliament the king had to rely on contributions to pay for his army • Roundheads were members of Parliament who opposed the king.
We’re Going In! • Leader of the Roundheads was Oliver Cromwell • Rose to power by being a successful military leader, in 1644 he led a victory for the Roundheads where they killed 4000 of the king’s soldiers. • In 1646 the king surrenders and Cromwell accumulated full control.
There’s a New Sheriff in Town • Cromwell dismissed all members of Parliament who disagreed with him and created what was called a Rump Parliament . • This group of Cromwell’s men eventually charged the king with treason and on January 30th 1649 Charles I was publicly executed • This would later come back to bite him in the butt • The House of Commons abolished the House of Lords and outlawed the monarchy.
A Monarch for a Monarch • England became a commonwealthwhich is a republican government based on the common good of ALL the people. • In 1653 Cromwell was given the title Lord Protector of England • Following his faith very closely, Cromwell demanded complete obedience and eradicated all useless distractions such as theaters and limiting other forms of popular entertainment.
OoOoOoForshadowing! • I won’t ruin the surprise, but we’ll see this guy again! • Cromwell, the king’s death and war troubled many English people • One of the popular Royalists who fled TO France during Cromwell’s reign was Thomas Hobbes • Wrote Leviathanwhich argued that people needed an all-powerful monarch to tell them how to live • This inspired England to try to find a balance between a representative government and the monarchy. Leviathan is one of the seven princes of Hell and its gatekeeper
Sometimes the Apple Does Fall Far from the Tree • Richard Cromwell took over after his father’s death in 1658. • Wasn’t the brightest crayon in the box • Eventually parliament reconvened and voted to bring back the monarchy , this event eventually became known as The Restoration. No Hard Feelings? • In 1660, Parliament invited the son king Charles I (dead/executed) to rule, which he accepted, and that same year was crowned Charles II
Back With a Vengeance and Some Good Ideas • Cromwell Revisited • The rule of Charles II had positive and negative events (1660-1685) Positive: Reopened theaters and encouraged the arts Passed the Habeas Corpus Act of 1679, which guaranteed that someone accused of a crime had the right to appear in court to determine if they were to be held or released. • Negative: • Resurgence of the Bubonic Plague in 1665, killing 100,000 in London alone. • The Great Fire of London, which destroyed large parts of the city but also killed the rats that spread the deadly plague.
Another One? • Because James II was a Catholiche wasn’t very popular when he took the throne after his brother, Charles’s death in 1685. • James, like many before him, believed in an absolute monarchy, which the people of England couldn’t tolerate anymore. • In 1688 a group of nobles invited James’s daughter Mary and her husband William to rule, they would become William and Mary of Orange • James didn’t put up a fight and fled to France. Because there was no bloodshed during this major political shift it became known as the Glorious Revolution.
The Restoration • Parliament had essentially crowned the new king and queen • The EnglishBill of Rights William and Mary had to sign before taking throne. (*inspiration for the US Constitution) It prevented monarchs from levying taxes without consent of Parliament, among other provisions • This document showed England’s growth as a constitutional monarchy a term for a monarchy limited by law.
England had finally rejected the concept of absolute monarch who ruled by divine right, now there would only be a monarchy ruled by law.