pentan-3-one pentan-2-one pentanal pentenal pent-2-enal trans-pent-2-enal
Hex-4-yn-1-ol Cyclopent-2-enone 5-chlorocyclopent-2-enone
In summary, to name an organic molecule, work back-to-front: • Find the principal functional group. • Find the longest chain (or ring) including the principal functional group and all double/triple bonds. • Number the chain starting at whichever end gives the principal functional group the lower number. (For a ring, start numbering at the principal functional group.) • Name the principal functional group, numbering if necessary. • Name the main chain (or ring), numbering the C=C or CC bonds if necessary. If this gives a name in which the next letter after the ‘e’ of ‘ane’, ‘ene’ or ‘yne’ is a vowel, drop the ‘e’. • Name and number the substituents on the main chain. If a substituent appears more than once, use a prefix to indicate how many there are and include a number for each appearance. List the substituents in alphabetical order (not counting prefixes i.e. trichloro comes before dimethyl because c comes before m) followed by the main chain (or ring) name. • Finally, add cis- or trans- to the front of the name if necessary.
Esters can be made by reacting a carboxylic acid with an alcohol: • Their names reflect this. The chain from the alcohol is named as a substituent followed by a space. Then the carboxylic acid is named, changing the suffix from ‘–oic acid’ to ‘–oate’. e.g. The ester above was made from ethanol and benzoic acid. It is called ethylbenzoate. • What is the structure of octyl ethanoate?
Amides are made by reacting a carboxylic acid with an amine: • Their names reflect this. The chain from the amine is named as a substituent followed by a space. Then the carboxylic acid is named, changing the suffix from ‘–oic acid’ to ‘–amide’. e.g. The amide above was made from ethanamine and benzoic acid. It is called ethylbenzamide. • What is the structure of propyl hexanamide?
Kinetics and Reaction Mechanism • Reactions take place as a result of collisions between molecules/ions. • These collisions are are called “elementary processes”. • In these processes, bonds are broken and/or formed if the collision is sufficiently energetic (to overcome ∆G‡) and the collision geometry is appropriate. • The overall conversion of reactants to products may involve several elementary processes. • Understanding electron movement is a critical part of understanding chemical reactions.
Electrophiles and Nucleophiles - the components of polar reactions. Nucleophiles are species that seek positiveness. They can be anionic, negatively polarized or electron-rich… Electrophiles are species that seek negativeness. They can be cations, positively polarized, or electron deficient.