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The U.S. A Growing World Power. Chapter 9. U.S. looks outside her borders. IMPERIALISM AND AMERICA. Throughout the 19 th century America expanded control of the continent to the Pacific Ocean

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imperialism and america
IMPERIALISM AND AMERICA

Throughout the 19th century America expanded control of the continent to the Pacific Ocean

By 1880, many American leaders felt the U.S. should join European nations and establish colonies overseas

Thus began America’s foray into Imperialism – the policy in which stronger nations extend control over weaker nations

why imperialism
WHY IMPERIALISM?

1) Desire for Military strength – Mahan advised strong navy

2) Thirst for new markets – to spur economy& trade

3) Belief in Cultural Superiority – a belief that Anglo-Saxons were superior

the u s acquires alaska
THE U.S. ACQUIRES ALASKA
  • In 1867, Secretary of State William Seward arranged for the United States to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million
  • Some thought it was a silly idea and called it “Seward’s Icebox”
  • Time has shown how smart it was to buy Alaska for 2 cents an acre
  • Alaska is rich in timber, minerals and oil

Alaska

u s takes hawaii
U.S. TAKES HAWAII

Hawaii had been economically important to Americans for centuries

To avoid import taxes (tariffs), sugar growers pleaded for annexation

The U.S. knew the value of the Islands – they had built a naval base at Pearl Harbor in 1887

Led by Sanford Dole, American annexed Hawaii in 1898 and it formally became a state in 1959

causes
CAUSES
  • Monroe Doctrine
    • Keep European influences out of our hemisphere
  • American Imperialism
    • Desire for an American Empire (Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines)
  • Yellow Journalism
    • Sensationalized media used specifically to instigate pro-American feelings and stir up support for war
problems in cuba
Problems in Cuba
  • Cubans were dissatisfied with Spain
  • Fought Ten Years' War (1868-1878)
    • Refused to grant self-government
  • In 1895 a second conflict broke out
    • Spain sent 200,000 troops to Cuba
  • U.S. was outraged by reports from Cuba
    • There were stories that Spain was leveling homes, factories, and fields
    • U.S. had economic interests in Cuba
  • President Clevelandwas against going to war
    • If Congressapproved war, he vowed to never send the military to Cuba
yellow journalism
Yellow Journalism
  • U.S. newspapers sensationalized the events taking place in Cuba
    • Known as "yellow journalism“
  • Newspaper tycoons Hearst( New York Journal) and Pulitzer( New York World) were in a circulation war
    • They needed to sell newspapers! Were willing to make up stories
  • Hearst sent artists to Cuba to paint and draw the atrocities
    • One reported to Hearst that the rumors and scale of the conflict were overblown
    • Hearst replied "You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war.”
the warship maine was split in two by an enemy s secret infernal machine
The Warship Maine Was Split In Two By An Enemy's Secret Infernal Machine!
  • The U.S. sent the USS Maine to Cuba
  • Hearst intercepts personal letterfrom the ambassador from Spain to his friend.
    • It spoke rudely of President McKinley
    • Hearst published the letter
  • The letter outraged Americans and tensions grow between USand Spain
  • Then in February 1898 the Maineexplodes
    • 260out of 350sailors and officers die
  • The Mainedestruction created an uproar
    • The yellow press exploited the story
    • Anti-Spanish sentiments grew
slide15
WAR!
  • The yellow press continued feeding the public's appetite for anti-Spanish news
  • War Hawks like Theodore Roosevelt criticized McKinley for being weak
  • McKinley finally submits to cries for war
    • In April1898 the U.S. declared war
    • U.S. public celebrated
  • Europe saw the war as a land-grab
    • Effort by America to assume control of Cuba from Spain
  • Congress passed the Teller Amendment
    • Promised not to annex Cuba
    • US claimed to be fighting the war to liberate an oppressed people and promote justice in the world
rough riders and san juan hill
Rough Riders and San Juan Hill
  • U.S. had no experience in the tropics
    • Army arrived with wool clothing
  • Better equipped were the "Rough Riders“
    • Most famous was Theodore Roosevelt
    • Resigned his post in the Navyto fight
    • Roosevelt had no militaryexperience
  • Battle of San Juan Hill was fought in July
    • The “Rough Riders” stormed the hill
    • Suffered 3x as many loses as Spain
    • In the end they claimed victory
  • With defeats in Cuba and the Philippines Spain asked for peace
rise of theodore roosevelt
Rise of Theodore Roosevelt
  • The Battle of San Juan Hill launched Theodore Roosevelt into national fame
  • Roosevelt returned to the United States a national hero
  • He was elected governor of New York later in the year
  • He then became Vice President in the general election two years later
dewey and the philippines
Dewey and the Philippines
  • Theodore Roosevelt , the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, thought the US should take a bigger role in world affairs
    • He wanted more than a war in Cuba
  • So…Rooseveltused his authority to cable George Dewey the officer in command of the U.S. fleet in Hong Kong harbor
    • Roosevelt told Dewey that if the U.S. went to war he was to attack the Spanish fleet in the Philippines
    • Rooseveltgave the order without his bosses knowledge
  • When the U.S. declared war Dewey sailed into Manila harbor
  • Dewey'sforces quickly defeated the Spanishfleet
    • Not a single U.S. sailor died
american imperialism
American Imperialism
  • Americans were excited by the victory
  • But Dewey had no troops, and without troops, you can’t invade
    • Dewey had to wait months for troops
  • Other fleets sailed near Manila, especially German and British fleets
    • German fleet harassed the U.S.
    • British wanted to offset German intimidation and foster better relations between Britain and America
  • War in the Philippines was seen as a way to get a new set of Pacific islands (Hawaii)
    • U.S. annexed Hawaii in July 1898
slide22
A Filipino rebellion against the Spanish had been in progress when Dewey landed in Manila.
  • Dewey used the rebels, led by Emilio Aguinaldo to help him defeat the Spanish on land
results of war
Results of War
  • Ended Spain’s colonial Empire
  • The U.S. emerged as a world power and a military power
  • U.S. established rule in the Philippines
  • 5400 American soldiers died
    • 400 in battle
    • And the rest from disease and food poisoning
treaty of paris
Treaty of Paris
  • The terms of the peace agreement:
    • Cuba would become independent
    • The U.S. would get Guam
    • The U.S. would get Puerto Rico
  • The Philippines??
    • U.S. refused to give the islands back
    • Spain, however, had a complaint
  • By the time U.S. ground forces arrived the armistice was signed
    • The US should have stopped fighting
    • Spain said…Philippines didn't count
  • American negotiators offered Spain $20 million dollars and they accepted
  • In December 1898, the US and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris
the philippines
The Philippines
  • Debate on annexation of the Philippines
    • For annexation: Filipinos were not ready for self-government and if the U.S. did not help some other European country would.
    • Against annexation: region was not vital to U.S. interests and was against principles of democracy
u s maintained military presence in the philippines
U.S. maintained military presence in the Philippines
  • Tensions intensified with U.S. troops and Filipino rebels
  • War with Filipino rebels lasted more that 2 years – very bloody
  • Filipino troops used guerrilla warfare to battle the U.S.
results of filipino insurrection
Results of Filipino insurrection
  • 200,000-600,000 Filipinos died (most b/c of disease and famine)
  • Fewer than 5,000 U.S. soldiers died.
  • Revolt was subdued in 1901 when rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo, swore allegiance to the U.S.
  • Philippines gained independence from the U.S. in 1946 (July 4)
foreign influence in china
FOREIGN INFLUENCE IN CHINA

Foreign nations were opening the door to China’s trade

  • China was a vast potential market for American products
  • Weakened by war and foreign intervention, many European countries had colonized in China
  • In 1889, John Hay, U.S. Secretary of State, issued the Open Door Policy which outlined his plan for free trade among nations in China
boxer rebellion
BOXER REBELLION
  • European nations dominated China’s cities
  • Resentment arose in the form of secret societies determined to rid China of these “foreign devils”
  • The Boxer’s were a secret group that rioted in 1900, killing and vandalizing all things foreign
  • Foreign Troops were called in to put down this “Boxer Rebellion”
american interests in china
American Interests in China
  • After the Boxer Rebellion, John Hay again issued a series of Open Door Policies
  • These policies reflected American beliefs in the importance of exports, the right of America to intervene to keep foreign markets open, and the belief that America’s survival depended on access to foreign markets