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ELT In Iran: Globalization or Localization?. Hassan Soleimani Ph.D. In Applied Linguistics, PNU. Globalization Scheuerman , 2008. Giddens (1990). Malcolm, 1995. Robertson, 1995. Social Capital. Worldwide social relations ’ unfettered by ‘the constraints of geography’

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elt in iran globalization or localization

ELT In Iran: Globalization or Localization?

Hassan Soleimani

Ph.D. In Applied Linguistics, PNU

globalization scheuerman 2008
GlobalizationScheuerman, 2008

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

giddens 1990
Giddens (1990)

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

malcolm 1995
Malcolm, 1995

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

robertson 1995
Robertson, 1995

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

social capital
Social Capital
  • Worldwide social relations’ unfettered by ‘the constraints of geography’
  • Language : the medium of social interaction
  • New communication technologies enable individuals to have regular exchanges with distant others whom they have never met face-to-face
  • satellite television
  • Social capital:the exercise of power through language and culture (Bourdieu, 1993; Park, 2008

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

history
History
  • Pre-modern phenomenon
  • Fifteenth century Europe when the nation-state was born
  • The Catholic Church began to spread

worldwide and explorers began to map the planet and colonize the world

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

globalization of english
Globalization of English
  • A few centuries ago, English area/shores of a small island
  • Shakespeare’s era, English had little value outside England, not even in Ireland or Wales
  • Fortunes of Lg. not purely linguistically-based
  • Commercial/political power and prestige derived from scientific, cultural/other achievements” (Leitner, 1992)
  • Power and influence of their speakers
  • Large scale migration and settlement of native language speakers, military imposition (colonialism),

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

globalization of english1
Globalization of English
  • Outside colonies: 19th century, Industrial Revolution
  • Britain the leading industrial/trading nation (Crystal, 1997)
  • New technology (telephone, telegraph) far-reaching communications network mainly dominated by English
  • Today, English the language of America
  • The economic/political power of America and current position of English in the world (Leith, 1997)
  • After WW II, the USA and USSR world superpowers
  • After the Cold War, collapse of Russia and communism, the USA the sole superpower (Blake, 1996)

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

globalization appadurai 1990
GlobalizationAppadurai, 1990

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

elt financescapes
ELT Financescapes
  • To me, as far as globalization and ELT is concerned, the major motivation is financial and economic!
  • ELT materials produced/exported to Expanding Circle countries
  • Expanding circle authors no right for materials development in the global market
  • Unidirectional globalization!
  • increase control over markets and to protect the wealth of “inner circle”
  • English market in global terms

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

elt financescapes1
ELT Financescapes
  • Spread of teaching materials from IC (USA and Britain) to EC
  • Interchange, New interchange, Headway, Person to Person, Intercom, Streamline, ….
  • Interchange’ series: a pack consisting of

a Student’s book, Teacher’s manual, class audio CDs and Student’s audio CDS, film

  • TESOL teacher training programs, conducting

seminars, work shops especially in Expanding Circle countries in various ways and means

through British councils or American centers

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

financescapes
Financescapes
  • 75 territories with English as official or co-official language (2.24 billion people !! one third of world population)
  • Users of English as first lg329, 140, 800; second lg430,614,500

(Crystal, 2003: census 2000)

  • Nearly 600 English language book publishing companies (Wikipedia)/196 universities in the US and England
  • Iran’s revenue from oil export vs. revenue from ELT materials developed in the US and imported to periphery/outer circle/expanding countries in the world ! (no statistics )

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

ideoscapes flow of ideas linguistic imperialism
Ideoscapes: flow of ideasLinguistic Imperialism
  • The university of Chicago Press, the largest in the world
  • The Chicago Manuel Style, existing in nearly all libraries in the world
  • Researchers all over the world have to follow the “thinking framework, reasoning formula” imposed by American scholars!
  • Linguistic Imperialism?!

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

linguistic imperialism
Linguistic Imperialism

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

ideoscapes flow of ideas native speakerism proficiency
Ideoscapes: flow of ideasNative Speakerism/proficiency
  • Who is a native speaker? A reality or myth?!

A controversial issue

  • Criterion: Country of birth: then America, England (the white or black?)
  • What about Canada, Australia, New Zealand?
  • Eminent novelists: Conrad, Nabokov, Soyinka
  • Native speakers, the owners of English?

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

native speaker a myth
Native Speaker: A Myth
  • A politico-economic matter, not-linguistic (Lele, 2005)
  • Some native speakers of English see some other NSs of English as non-native speakers
  • Chomsky (cited in Davies, 2003): “the difference between native and non-native speaker is pointless”
  • ‘Everyone is a Native Speaker of the particular language states that the person has ‘‘grown’’ in his/her mind/brain. In the real world, that is all there is to say’
  • Supposing native speaker is a reality, then is it achievable?

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

native pronunciation a myth
Native Pronunciation: A Myth
  • Psychomotor variables
  • Native pronunciation not achievable!
  • Critical Period Hypothesis
  • Articulators/muscles: tongue, larynx, vocal chords
  • Loss of plasticity after puberty (12)
  • Not controlled by learners, instruction no role
  • /θ/, /δ/, /∂/, /l/, /r/
  • Exaggeration, more American than American themselves !
  • Justification? Fever of native-like pronunciation

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

ideoscapes communicative competence
Ideoscapes: Communicative Competence
  • Dell Hymes: Native speaker competence
  • Linguistic,sociocultural,discourse, strategic
  • CLT example of pedagogical ideoscape, a global flow of ideas about teaching
  • What to teach/how to teach
  • Acculturation model
  • Luring learners into western cultures, not immediate needs of learners

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

localization in iran authorities
Localization in Iran: authorities
  • Authorities to blame: No official education policy
  • Curriculum reform in ELT: social, political, economic, cultural, ideological
  • Critical pedagogy
  • Local needs and local realities

Japan: education reform since the 1980s

Kukosaika: blend Americanization, Westernization with nationalism

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

localization in iran elt experts
Localization in Iran: ELT experts
  • Teacher education programs
  • Professionalism in language teaching

Teachers: needs analysts, curriculum developers, syllabus designers, materials developers

Kumaravadivelu (2006): practicality, particularity, possibility

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

localization in iran teachers
Localization in Iran: Teachers
  • Think globally, act locally
  • Reality of language learning in Expanding countries
  • Being realistic: ecosystem of ELT in Iran
  • Self-confidence
  • Not slaves to ELT packages
  • Designers of their own methods based on unique needs of Ls
  • Action researchers
  • Scientists and artists
  • Not imposing our perceived needs upon learners

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

localization in iran learners
Localization in Iran: Learners
  • Achievable real goals and objectives
  • Agency in the ecosystem of ELT
  • Negotiate your felt needs

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com

slide27

Thank You for Your Attention

arshia.soleimani@gmail.com