Human Population Genetics. Human population migrations. Out of Africa, Replacement Single mother of all humans (Eve) ~150,000yr Single father of all humans (Adam) ~70,000yr Humans out of Africa ~40000 years ago replaced others (e.g., Neandertals ) Evidence: mtDNA , Y chromosome
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A small population that interbred reduced the genetic variation
Out of Africa ~ 40,000 years ago
Out of Africa
At least 1/chromosome
On average ~1/100 Mb
Alleles: G, T
Major Allele: G
Minor Allele: T
The degree of correlation between two SNP locations
How can we detect negative selection?
How can we detect positive selection?
CNSs have fewer SNPs
SNPs have shifted allele frequency spectra
Ratio of nonsynonymous to
Very old, persistent, strong positive selection for a protein that keeps adapting