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PH 241: Lecture 4 Nicholas P. Jewell University of California Berkeley January 25-30, 2006 PowerPoint Presentation
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PH 241: Lecture 4 Nicholas P. Jewell University of California Berkeley January 25-30, 2006. Measures of Association: Relative Risk. Relative measure RR = 1 Independence Note upper bound RR is not symmetric in roles of D and E. Non-Symmetry of RR. 1991 US Infant Mortality.

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PH 241: Lecture 4 Nicholas P. Jewell University of California Berkeley January 25-30, 2006


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    1. PH 241: Lecture 4 Nicholas P. Jewell University of California Berkeley January 25-30, 2006

    2. Measures of Association: Relative Risk • Relative measure • RR = 1 Independence • Note upper bound • RR is not symmetric in roles of D and E

    3. Non-Symmetry of RR

    4. 1991 US Infant Mortality RR (assoc. with unmarried) =

    5. Measures of Association: Odds Ratio • Relative measure • OR = 1 Independence • No upper bound • ORis symmetric in roles of D and E

    6. Symmetry of OR

    7. Symmetry of OR

    8. 1991 US Infant Mortality OR (assoc. with unmarried)

    9. OR as Approximation to RR

    10. OR as Approximation to RR

    11. OR as Approximation to RR

    12. OR as Approximation to RR

    13. OR as Approximation to RR

    14. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

    15. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

    16. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

    17. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

    18. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

    19. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

    20. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

    21. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

    22. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

    23. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

    24. RH (solid line), RR (dotted line), OR (dash-dotted line) as Risk Period extends in Time

    25. Measures of Association: Odds Ratio • Absolute comparison • ER = 0 Independence • ER is not symmetric in roles of D and E

    26. Measures of Association: Attributable Risk Number of cases with current exposure distribution Number of cases with no exposure to E Population size = N

    27. 1991 US Infant Mortality AR (assoc. with unmarried)

    28. Attributable Risk—Caution! • Encourages causal interpretation that may be incorrect • Assumes modification of E doesn’t change other risk factors • "Baseball is 90% mental -- the other half is physical." (Yogi Berra)