PH 241: Lecture 4 Nicholas P. Jewell University of California Berkeley January 25-30, 2006

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PH 241: Lecture 4 Nicholas P. Jewell University of California Berkeley January 25-30, 2006. Measures of Association: Relative Risk. Relative measure RR = 1 Independence Note upper bound RR is not symmetric in roles of D and E. Non-Symmetry of RR. 1991 US Infant Mortality.

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## PH 241: Lecture 4 Nicholas P. Jewell University of California Berkeley January 25-30, 2006

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1. PH 241: Lecture 4 Nicholas P. Jewell University of California Berkeley January 25-30, 2006

2. Measures of Association: Relative Risk • Relative measure • RR = 1 Independence • Note upper bound • RR is not symmetric in roles of D and E

3. Non-Symmetry of RR

4. 1991 US Infant Mortality RR (assoc. with unmarried) =

5. Measures of Association: Odds Ratio • Relative measure • OR = 1 Independence • No upper bound • ORis symmetric in roles of D and E

6. Symmetry of OR

7. Symmetry of OR

8. 1991 US Infant Mortality OR (assoc. with unmarried)

9. OR as Approximation to RR

10. OR as Approximation to RR

11. OR as Approximation to RR

12. OR as Approximation to RR

13. OR as Approximation to RR

14. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

15. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

16. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

17. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

18. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

19. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

20. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

21. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

22. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

23. Comparison of RR and OR at Various Risk Levels

24. RH (solid line), RR (dotted line), OR (dash-dotted line) as Risk Period extends in Time

25. Measures of Association: Odds Ratio • Absolute comparison • ER = 0 Independence • ER is not symmetric in roles of D and E

26. Measures of Association: Attributable Risk Number of cases with current exposure distribution Number of cases with no exposure to E Population size = N

27. 1991 US Infant Mortality AR (assoc. with unmarried)

28. Attributable Risk—Caution! • Encourages causal interpretation that may be incorrect • Assumes modification of E doesn’t change other risk factors • "Baseball is 90% mental -- the other half is physical." (Yogi Berra)