?Which town am I? Officially declared a town on Valentines Day in 1896 …
?Which town am I? • One of the richest towns in Australia at the beginning of the 20th century … • I am famous for wild weather, challenging terrain and a lunar landscape
?Which town am I? • This moss frog is found in my region and nowhere else in the world • Some species of plant in my region are found only here and in South America (Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water & Environment for all illustrations of fauna and flora) http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/LJEM-6A2VYG?open
?Which town am I? • Most of the area surrounding me is World Heritage Area (WHA) • I am rich in mineral resources and hydroelectric power
?Which town am I? My map coordinates are: 42° 04’ 50” S (latitude) (Lines of latitude are also known as parallels: Why?) 145° 33’ 23” E (longitude) (Lines of longitude are also known as meridians) Want to refresh your memory about latitude and longitude? http://www.utas.edu.au/spatial/locations/spalatit.html
?Which town am I? • Let’s visit this location: Individually: Enter in your browser • <http://maps.google.com.au/maps/ms?ie=UTF8&hl=en&msa=0&ll=-42.187829,146.601563&spn=2.942752,4.927368&t=h&z=8&msid=218208937857547595145.00049e00fc0367df97847> And the town is … Queenstown, Tasmania! (Image of Mt Lyell ABT No.5 arriving at Queenstown between 1950-1959) http://nla.gov.au/nla.pic-vn3422003
Queenstown: 42°S • Use the line draw tool to draw a line across Tasmania through the 42nd parallel S • Fly over the line using the arrow keys and name three other geographic features or towns that lie at approximately 42°S
Queenstown: Map Overview • What does the terrain look like along 42°S on the West Coast compared to the Central Plateau? The East Coast of Tasmania? • In your groups consider: What sort of conditions create this kind of terrain? (Think climate and geology)
Queenstown: Climate Were you right? http://www.weatherzone.com.au/climate/station.jsp?lt=site&lc=97034 Look at the bar and line graph and answer the following questions individually:
Queenstown: Climate • What are the mean maximum and minimum temperatures for February: For July? • Which months have approximately 250mm rainfall? • What do you think the purple shading in the background of the graph represents?
Queenstown: Climate • Compare with other group members. Now have a look at this site as a group. Discuss: Does the data look different? Is it actually different? Does one represent the data better? Why? http://maps.bonzle.com/c/a?a=p&p=253&d=w&wnb=91927990&cmd=sp&c=1&x=145.55645&y=-42.0805&w=40000&mpsec=0 • Individually, scroll down to the topographic map near the bottom of the page. Use the button just above the map to get the height, depth and position of Queenstown.
Queenstown: Topography • An altitude of 146m! Were you surprised? Why? • Now look at a topographic slice of Queenstown: http://maps.bonzle.com/c/a?a=p&p=253&d=ter&cmd=sp&c=1&x=145%2E55645&y=%2D42%2E0805&w=40000&mpsec=0
Queenstown: Topography • Draw a compass demonstrating the direction of each terrain slice. • What is the differential between the highest and lowest points in the North-South slice? East-West? • Use the buttons to view 20km and 50km slices.
Queenstown: Geology • As a class brainstorm: • How does the climate help explain the terrain? • What sort of geological/environmental processes are responsible for creating high mountains, deep valleys, and many lakes?
Queenstown: Geology Here are a couple of clues: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U7YQ5vwaL98&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F-h7G0h9Ip0&NR=1 (good music, shame about the spelling)
Queenstown: Gondwanaland and Geology • http://www.google.com.au/imgres?imgurl=http://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/madagascar/images/gondwan.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.mobot.org/mobot/madagascar/image.asp%3Frelation%3Dfirstmap%26nextorder%3D5%26referringcategory%3Dwhy&h=377&w=565&sz=43&tbnid=roRqi_AnNuMDyM:&tbnh=89&tbnw=134&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmap%2Bof%2BGondwanaland&zoom=1&q=map+of+Gondwanaland&usg=__xkLyPKGzxhqaSDBwHtwUng2Tvcw=&sa=X&ei=q-FsTYHvKoXovQPLhoHYBA&ved=0CCMQ9QEwAw • Bring up Gondwanaland on your browser … • The Gondwanaland map shows the orientation of the continents of the Southern Hemisphere before they separated. Imagine the forces involved in shuffling continents as they collided and separated!
Queenstown: Geology • Recall that rocks are designated Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, Tertiary and Quaternary in order of decreasing age. • Western Tasmania consists of Palaeozoic formations: schists, slates, shales, quartzites, limestones and conglomerates. Ancient rocks exposed by the weather conditions.
Queenstown: Geology • Of particular interest are tubicolar sandstones – so called because they have annelid casts in them. (Worms!) • Examine the rocks on the table. Now you’ve watched the videos, see if you can also determine which are igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. Classify each rock by its number into the table on the board.
Queenstown: Geology • The high elevation of the West Coast was caused by tectonic activity. Erosion by water and glaciation etched deep valleys along fault lines or where rocks were weaker.. • Quaternary glaciation created much of the topography you saw in the terrain slices. See how: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XOGbOOaPHsw&feature=related
Queenstown: Geology • ‘Intrusions’ of molten ‘ore-bearing material’ led to ‘contact metamorphism’ … Try and guess what these terms mean now you’ve seen the animations. • What metal was contained in the ore-bearing material near Queenstown, which led to the creation of the town itself?
Queenstown: Geology • SUMMARY: High rainfall and glaciation caused erosion of towering mountain ranges created through tectonic activity, exposing ancient rocks and making accessible ore-bearing formations, including commercially valuable elements such as copper.
Assessment Option 1 • In Pairs: Create an original animation or powerpoint of the West Coast. Detail rock formations and depict geological processes. Provide an oral or written narration to help explain what is happening over time. Include maps and graphs to depict and summarise information. (See criteria)
Gondwanaland • As a class: Identify the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle of Gondwanaland … • So that’s why Tasmania shares many species with the mainland, and also why some flora and fauna on the West Coast resemble those in temperate rainforests in Patagonia, South America
Queenstown: Flora and Fauna • Tasmania separated from mainland Australia at the end of the last Ice Age, around 10 000 years ago, or 8 000 BCE. • When it did so and became an island, species evolved independently, so many are native only to Tasmania. • Plus, Tasmania has geographic regions that vary greatly in terrain and climate and are separated by natural barriers, such as mountain ranges. What effect may this have on speciation?
Queenstown: Flora and Fauna • In your groups, list 10 animals native to the West Coast. You can include vertebrates or invertebrates … (Which category do birds belong to?) • How about 10 plants … Here’s a clue
Queenstown: Flora and Fauna • Pseudolycushaemorrhoidalis beetle on a Leatherwood flower! • Native plants include: Sassafrass, blackwood, myrtle, leatherwood, huon pine, button grass, tree ferns, etc. Have a look at this website and complete your list: • http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/LJEM-6A2VYG?open(Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water & Environment for all illustrations of fauna and flora)
Queenstown: Fauna: Case study • In Pairs: Discover and record: What does a broad-toothed rat eat? What sort of habitat does it live in? What is its lifestyle and lifecycle – breeding, etc? (You will need to consult other sources, so choose reliable ones…How can you tell?) Broad-toothed rat
Queenstown: Fauna: case study • What databases will you initially search? • What search terms will you use? • Document your search so that you can see what worked and what didn’t; what/where you have already checked and where you need to go next, which sources are reliable, which not, which need further checking • Document your results (eg. tabulated under ‘habitat’, etc, creating new categories if needed) • What other sources of information may be able to help? (Libraries, scientific and conservation organisations, WIRES, etc)
Queenstown: Fauna: case study http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/AM01163.htm http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10510 www.tasfieldnats.org.au/TasNatArticles/TasNat128/TN128-DRIESSEN.pdf Stuck? Try these sites for starters for information about broad-toothed rats
Queenstown: Flora and Fauna • As a class: Share what we have discovered. Itemise successful search terms and compare categories. Consider what effect differing forms of land use such as hunting, gathering, firestick farming, logging, mining or World Heritage Area status (WHA) may have on food, habitat and breeding for the broad-toothed rat. • SUMMARY: Western Tasmania has many unique native species which have evolved in, and depend upon, specific, isolated environments. WHA exist to conserve the variety and size of interdependent species populations
Assessment Option 2 • In Pairs: Choose a species endemic to the West Coast. Describe its particular appearance, habitat, lifestyle, lifecycle, etc. Explain how this information is necessary to conserve it. Consider using using maps, graphs, tables and images to help summarise data. Present as a blog, poster or play. (See criteria)
Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use • As a class: Before Tasmania separated from the mainland, it was still a distinct region … • When was the region we now call Tasmania first occupied? • What was it called?
Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use • Archeological evidence suggests Trowener/Tasmania has been occupied for between 35-40 000 years • Ancient stone tools and artworks near Macquarie Harbour form part of that evidence • Tasmanian Aboriginal people became separated from their mainland cousins at the end of the last Ice Age when Tasmania became an island, around 8 000 BCE
Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use • Due to this separation, Tasmanian Aboriginal people developed distinctive physical and cultural characteristics: • Physically they were characterised by ‘fuzzy hair’ and reddish-brown skin • Culturally, they discontinued the use of bone tools and consumption of scale fish. (Or did they …?)
Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use • Over the subsequent 10 000 years until European migration, Aboriginal people dispersed throughout Tasmania and formed discrete groupings, occupying different geographic niches, developing different languages and different lifestyles, and utilising the land differently
Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use • In groups: Examine the following table and map of Tasmanian Aboriginal groupings. • Which group/s occupied the West Coast region?
Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use • Consider the source of this map and table: Lyndall RYAN (1996). The Aboriginal Tasmanians. 2nd ed. Allen & Unwin: St Leonards, NSW • What do you think: primary or secondary source? Why? How did they work it out? • Now look at another map: Is it similar/different?
Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use Plomley, N.J.B. (1993). The Tasmanian Aborigines. Launceston: State Government of Tasmania
Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use • Because we lack many primary sources and there was a lot of variation in lifestyle between different groups, we need to triangulate information from as many different sources as possible to describe the life of West Coast Aboriginal Tasmanians • Much of what we ‘know’ comes from the following sources
Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use • Plomley, N.J.B. (1993). The Tasmanian Aborigines. Launceston: State Government of Tasmania • Plomley, N.J.B. (1976). A word-list of the Tasmanian Aboriginal languages. Launceston: State Government of Tasmania • Robinson, G.A. (2008). Friendly Mission: The Tasmanian journal and papers of George Augustus Robinson 1829-1834. Ed. N. Plomley. Hobart: Quintus, University of Tasmania
Queenstown: Human occupation and Land use • Where does Plomley get his information from? • As a class brainstorm: What other ‘voices’ would you like to hear to try to understand what life was like for Tasmanian Aborigines? • What sources can provide that voice?