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Communication Technology UAMG3053. Week 4 & 5 Impact of “New Media”. Visual Communication. Visual Communication – any optically stimulating message that is understood by viewer (Lester). Visual Messages – any direct, mediated, or mental picture.

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communication technology uamg3053

Communication Technology UAMG3053

Week 4 & 5

Impact of “New Media”

visual communication
Visual Communication
  • Visual Communication – any optically stimulating message that is understood by viewer (Lester).
  • Visual Messages – any direct, mediated, or mental picture.
our brain process three types of visual messages
Our brain process three types of visual messages
  • Mental: those that we experience from inside of our mind such as – thoughts, dreams and fantasies.
  • Direct – those that we see without media intervention.
  • Mediated – those that we see through some type of print or screen (movie, television, computer), and medium
visual process
Visual Process
  • The Visual Process = to see clearly is to think clearly (Aldous Huxley, The art of seeing).
to seeing clearly
To Seeing Clearly
  • First stage: Sense – letting enough light enter your eyes so that you could see objects immediately around you.
  • Second Stage: Select – to isolate and look at a specific part of a scene within enormous frame of possibilities that sensing offers. Selecting is a conscious, intellectual act.
  • Third Stage: Perceive – try to make sense of what you select.








The more you know, the more you sense. The more you sense, the more you select. The more you select, the more you perceive. The more you perceive the more you remember. The more you remember, the more you learn. The more you learn, the more you know.
the more you know the more you see
“The more you know, the more you see”
  • Proposed by Aldous Huxley
  • Seeing is a complex process that involves the mind as well as the eyes
  • Clear seeing is the combination of how much you know and how much you feel at any particular moment
“The more you know, the more you see”
  • Example: A ball player will look at a ball game differently that a newcomer. He or she might look at the angle of the ball, the technique of the players, and the signal of the team communication. The newcomer might only interested in the score of the game
visual and communication
Visual and Communication

The studies Visual Communication

  • Visual Persuasion in Advertising
  • Public Relations
  • Journalism
  • Cartoon
  • Photography
  • Pictorial Stereotypes – Gender, Race, Life style
  • Motion Picture
  • Television
digital photography
Digital Photography
  • Shahira Fahmy and C. Zoe Smith’s study “Photographers’ Note Digital’s Advantages, Disadvantages.
  • Qualitative Study of digital photography on participants of 2001 Picture of the Year International (POYi) contest.
  • First, email contact
  • Second, email questions
  • Third, Answer by email or telephone
shooting digital
Shooting Digital


1. Able to stay in location longer


1. May leave assignments earlier

- Decrease the quality of journalistic coverage

- Tend to shoot less images

digital darkroom
Digital Darkroom


  • Photographers have control over images on digital darkroom
  • Computer screen is more intimate –easy to work
  • Better working environment- without chemical


  • Difficult to look at computer screen
  • Less intimate relationship with the work


  • More Organize


  • Limited Storage – forced to delete images
  • Spend more time to burn CD and create archive
  • Images cannot represent the past
issue of control
Issue of Control


  • Photographers’ time become more valuable and flexible
  • Photographers have more control over images


  • Photographers as editor – deleting/screening
  • Limit the work of photojournalists
picture editing
Picture Editing


  • More value to picture editor job


  • Picture Editor’s job might be replaced
  • Visual content and real work

- images are products of a chain gatekeepers

3. Less quality images

- Loose picture editor second eyes opinion.

interpersonal relationships
Interpersonal Relationships


  • Enhanced personal relationships

- Photographers come in to newsroom to scan, edit

- Physically present in the newsroom


  • Isolate photographers from newsroom – transmit from location
  • In future, photographers might do not have to come in to the newsroom at all
visual persuasion in public relations
Visual Persuasion in Public Relations
  • “How” it was reported might be more important that “what” it was reported
  • PR tries to influence news reporters and public opinion
  • Helps journalists identify important stories
  • PR in political campaign – US presidential campaign
  • News editors prefer well-written and interesting news items
6 PR chooses newspaper – read and reread

7. PR events staged to attract media attention

8. TV- persuasive impact of visual communication can be exploited – The Super bowl commercial

9. Cable provides specialize audiences

10. Guess appearances – TV shows

11. Video News Release

12. Expanded news releases - informercials

culture shock
Culture Shock
  • The difficulties that you experience as you integrate into a new society can be a result of what is termed “culture shock”
  • Living in a new culture can exhilarating, personally rewarding, and intellectually stimulating. It also can be frustrating.
  • Those who doesn’t maintain an open mind, and doesn’t invest any effort trying to understand a foreign culture, is always going to be in a state of shock.
Based on a study in Hong Kong which observed five values among several families.
  • Foster continuous contact among family members, save time, nurture family values, tie into the pride felt by Hong Kong’s people as they joined mainland China and extend children’s education efforts
  • Related technology products were introduced to these families such as
Thinktank – would connect schools, teachers and parents, who will get information about the child’s work at school.
  • TeacherLINK – would connect teachers to parents seeking advice and
  • LogBook – would link office-bound parents to children working on lessons at home.
  • Homebase system – would provide a data link to household facilities
Foodchain – would promote shopping at any time. Fish and chicken would wear bar- coded tags, then specify when Foodchain employees should kill them and how should be prepared and where they should be delivered.
  • To figure out what will sell in a culture, companies should consider establishing a sort of living laboratory where they can study how people live, incorporate tools in their daily routines and what they need to create a better life at home and at work.
real time transmission
Real Time Transmission


- techniques include placing several frames of video into a buffer on the client (user) computer’s hard drive, and then beginning to play the video, as more files are placed into the buffer

- Playing a video images, approximately real-time, without having to wait for an entire large video file to download

Real Time cont….

- Instantaneous transmission

  • Satellite Broadcasting/Transmission

- War zone report/news

- Satellite conference

  • Internet Broadcasting/ Transmission

- Streaming video via the Internet

  • Real-time weather data – satellite and radar
communication technology uamg30531
Communication Technology UAMG3053

Week 4 & 5

  • Impact of “New Media”
journalism s challenges in real time
Journalism’s Challenges in Real-Time
  • The dissemination of news is now instantaneous and global
  • News affects public perception and public policy

No spin zone

  • Technological revolution is making the control of the flow of news and information and to spin it in their favor
  • Government actions are now tracked live on television
Government become more transparent
  • Media and public as watchdog
  • Reduce media biases and manipulation of local media - as audiences (users) can easily compare the how the same news and information is handled by other media
  • To maintain control - Government and military might totally block access to news or held away front-line action
  • Enlist correspondent with self-censorship
The responsibility is on the journalist.
  • Real-time report makes it more difficult for government to ensure their interpretation of events is the only version that is disseminated
  • The immediacy of news increases the impact of journalism and pressure government to react quickly

E.g. Compared news on WWII, Bosnia, and Afghanistan and Iraq

Reporting in real time
  • Technology provides journalist with more opportunities and risks
  • Reporting in real-time and the expensive equipments make journalist a target for attack
  • Media organizations have to ensure accuracy, objectivity, and freedom of bias
huge responsibilities on journalist
Huge responsibilities on journalist

1. Cheaper equipment – freelance war journalists

- Pressure to go to the frontline for marketable footage

- Paparazzi

2. Digital images – easy to manipulate

- Burden to verify materials

3. Framing news events in their context

- e.g. airing a burning of US flag without commentary or using a old footage with new story

outlook of modern journalism
Outlook of Modern Journalism
  • Roger Fidler “Those newspapers that can blend credible, High-quality information with compelling, interactive presentations will have the opportunity to live longer and prosper” (Pavlik, 1998, p. 186)
  • Newspapers are incorporating URLs in their daily content since mid-1990s
  • Internet has become a tool for journalists to gather news and information
journalists and internet
Journalists and Internet

In 1998-1999


  • Yahoo!
  • Alta Vista
  • Excite
  • Netscape
  • HotBot
  • Infoseek
Types of Websites
  • State government site
  • Federal government site
  • Newspapers site

Strong Websites

  • Reputable Sources
  • Valid and accurate information
  • Searchable
  • Easy access to information
Preferred web based technology
  • Email
  • File-transfer protocol
  • Bulletin Board – less use
  • Audio Streaming – less use
factors to publish online version with interactivity
Factors to publish online version with interactivity

1. Competition – website as extravagance

2. Community Pluralism – desire media interaction

3. Ownership decision

quality of new media content
Quality of New Media Content

Advantages of New Media Content

  • Rich multimedia presentation
  • Individualization of content
  • Fully interactive
  • Immersive forms of content
  • referring the quality of online publication
  • Electronic products that are nothing more than their paper products
  • Directly converted the paper version into electronic version
  • Example: “IF” the printed version of the Star and is the same.
  • The online electronic version does not provide us with any additional information.
new media and dissemination
New Media and Dissemination

Rapid Dissemination – Distribution technology

  • The speed of dissemination of information
  • One-to-many dissemination
  • From many to many dissemination
heterogeneous audience
Heterogeneous Audience


consisting of dissimilar or diverse ingredients or constituents

  • Has long been understood as – “receivers”
  • Traditionally refers to reader of, viewers of, listeners to one or other media channel
  • The term “audience” is diverse and constantly changing

E.g. Readers of early 18th century novels and to subscribers to 2005 cable television services to the Internet (users)

audiences are both
Audiences are both

1. Product of a social context

- Shared cultural interests, understandings, information needs

- E.g. Classical theaters, sports, romantic comedy, anti-war, republican and democrat.

2. Response to a particular pattern of media provision (arrangement)

- Television and Radio uses, Different lifestyle, availability, and everyday routines.

audiences can be define by
Audiences can be define by
  • Place – Local, regional or International
  • People – Age, gender, political belief, income (demographic)
  • Medium/Channel - TV, Radio, Internet (organization and technology combined)
  • Content – Genres, Styles,
  • Time – Primetime, daytime, drive-time
history and development of audience
History and Development of Audience

Classical Time

  • Media audience started in public theatrical and musical performances – Roman and Creek city

- Physical gathering in a certain place

- Spectator of public events

  • Had it own customs, rules, and expectations about time, place and content of performances; conditions for admission
features of audience in classical time
Features of audience in classical time
  • Localized in place and time
  • Sit in an “auditorium” to hear or see what was going on and to respond directly
  • Smaller audience by modern standard
  • Active within itself and interactive within performers – “live” performances
  • Have a potential collective life of its own, based on a common background and the shared experience of the moment
emergence of mass audience
Emergence of Mass Audience

Printed Book

  • Started with the introduction of printed book
  • Allowed effective communication at a distance in space and time and also privacy in use
  • Dispersed “reading public” – a set of individuals choosing the same texts
printed book
Printed Book….
  • Reading public was localized in cities, social status, and language
  • Expansion of technology has made the printed material cheap and plentiful for diversified audiences
  • Changes in technology and society altered the nature of audiences, especially in respect of scale
  • Urbanization, rail transportation, technology in printing, increased literacy…transformed printing production to a large-scale industries
film and audience
Film and Audience

Invention of film restored the original of “locatedness” of reception – pictures showing in town hall

  • Created the first “mass audience” – large scale reception and identical message or performance
  • Millions of people can enjoy the same mediated emotional and learning experiences
Audiences might not be able to interact with the film, but audiences could interact with each other
  • No live performance, accept for musical
  • The show was always and everywhere the same
audience and broadcasting
Audience and Broadcasting
  • New kind of audience based on technology
  • Competition of audiences become a matter of competing equipment – cable and satellite, video and audio recording, MP3 and CD
  • Was initially a distribution technology
  • Audience could be defined as consisting of those who possessed the reception equipment
Simultaneity of impact was much greater and affected larger numbers
  • Uniformity of content
  • Privatization – watching TV is a private affair
  • Earlier TV audiences are large, anonymous, addicted, and passive
  • TV and radio audiences are outside of the range of direct observation and record
audience as
Audience as

Audience as a mass

  • “Mass” audience – products of modern industrial urban society

- Largeness of society, anonymous, rootlessness, detached individuals, lacks any organization, stable structure, rules, and no fixed location

audience as1
Audience as …

Audience as a group

2. Experience is personal, small scale, and integrated into social life

- People makes their media choices

Audience as a market

3. TV and radio audiences

- Region served by media, social-demographic, actual and potential market

- Focus on media consumption

tutorial 9 questions
Tutorial 9 - Questions

1. What are four main changes that have affected the audience with the development of new media?

2. Discuss how the phrase “the more you know, the more you see” is true in your profession.

3. (a) Define “audience”.

(b) Can we refer to the Internet audience as heterogeneous? Why?

4 What is the prediction of John Pavlik about the 3 stages of online journalism in the future?

5. What are disadvantages of digital photography from photojournalists perspective?

  • Jukes, S. (2002). Real-time responsibility: Journalism’s challenges in an instantaneous age. Harvard International Review, 24, p. 14- 18.
  • Lester, P. M. (2003). Visual communication: Images with messages. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
  • Lowrey, W. (2003). What influences small newspapers to decide to publish online news?

Newspaper Research Journal, 24, p. 83-90.

  • McQuail, D. (1997). Audience analysis. London: Sage.
  • Pavlik, J. V. (1998). New media technology, London: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Robinson, P. (2002). The CNN effect: The myth of news, foreign policy and intervention. London: Routledge.