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Purchase lab manual in lab this week Homework 1 due in lab this week Homework 2 due in lab next week Read Mt. Saint Helens disaster paper. Igneous Rocks. Earth Materials continued. Mineral - Naturally formed -Solid -Formed by inorganic processes -Specific chemical composition

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Purchase lab manual in lab this weekHomework 1 due in lab this week

Homework 2 due in lab next week

Read Mt. Saint Helens disaster paper

slide3

Earth Materials continued

Mineral -Naturally formed

-Solid

-Formed by inorganic processes

-Specific chemical composition

-Characteristic crystal structure

Rock – a coherent, naturally occurring solid, consisting of an aggregate of one or more minerals, or a mass of natural glass or organic matter.

slide4

Basic Rock Classifications

  • Igneous
  • Sedimentary
  • Metamorphic
slide5

Rock Cycle

And

Pressure

Cementation

Erosion

SedimentaryRocks

Sediment

Erosion

Heat

Erosion

Pressure

Heat and Pressure

Igneous

Rocks

MetamorphicRocks

Cooling

Heat

Magma

slide6

?

Define - Freeze

?

igneous rocks
Igneous Rocks

-a rock that forms when hot molten rock

(magma or lava) cools and freezes solid

  • Two types of igneous rocks
  • Plutonic – cools underground
  • Volcanic – cools above ground
factors controlling melting
Factors controlling Melting

1. Temperature:

Melt at [800oC and 1200oC]

Source of heat [radioactive decay]

slide9

Geothermal Gradient – the rate at which temperature increases with depth in the Earth

30OC/km

factors controlling melting1
Factors controlling Melting

2. Pressure:

  • as pressure increases, melting temperature increases
  • as pressure decreases, melting temperature decreases

Lowering pressure causes melting in divergent margins.

factors controlling melting2
Factors controlling Melting

3. Water content:

as water content increases, melting temperature decreases

Water in rocks causes melting in convergent margins.

types of molten material
Types of Molten Material

1. Magma – molten material below the Earth's surface

2. Lava – molten material above the Earth's surface

slide20

Magma Composition Changes

  • Partial melting
  • Assimilation
  • Magma Mixing
  • Fractional Crystallization
slide21

Partial Melting

some minerals melt at a lower temperature than others.

magma viscosity
Magma Viscosity

Viscosity – resistance to flow

honey – high viscosity

water – low viscosity

Viscosity increases as silica content increases.

magma chemistry
Magma Chemistry

Molten material can consist of liquid rock, mineral grains and gases (H2O, CO2, SO2).

Silicon and oxygen (SiO2) make up the majority of magma

45% SiO2 - "low" silica content

75% SiO2 - "high" silica content

endmember magma chemistry
Endmember Magma Chemistry

Mafic – low SiO2, iron, magnesium

Felsic/Silicic – high SiO2, aluminum, calcium, sodium

igneous rock types
Igneous Rock Types

Intrusive (plutonic) rock – cools and solidifies below the Earth's surface.

Extrusive (volcanic) rock – cools and solidifies above the Earth's surface.

slide27

Textures of Igneous Rocks

Texture – overall appearance, related to size, shape, and arrangement of minerals.

Texture is related to cooling history of an igneous rock, not its chemistry.

slide28

Textures of Igneous Rocks

1.

Phaneritic (course grained)

Magma

2.

Aphanitic (fine grained)

Lava

Glassy

Vesicular

3.

4.

slide29

Increasing Fe and Mg

Increasing silica content

slide32

Silicic Chemical Composition

Aphanitic Texture –

Rapid Cooling

Small Crystals

Phaneritic Texture –

Slow Cooling

Large Crystals

Granite

Rhyolite

slide33

Intermediate Chemical Composition

Aphanitic Texture –

Rapid Cooling

Small Crystals

Phaneritic Texture –

Slow Cooling

Large Crystals

Diorite

Andesite

slide34

Mafic Chemical Composition

Aphanitic Texture –

Rapid Cooling

Small Crystals

Phaneritic Texture –

Slow Cooling

Large Crystals

Gabbro

Basalt

slide35

Phaneritic

Porphyritic-Phaneritic

Phenocrysts in Groundmass

slide36

Aphanitic

Porphyritic-Aphanitic

Phenocrysts in Groundmass

slide38

Ingersoll Mine

Ingersoll mine, Pennington Co., South Dakota, United States

One of the many adits at the old Ingersoll pegmatite. Private and Very dangerous. No Trespass.

slide40

Pyroclastic Texture

Ash Fall

Ash Flow