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The Direct Method. Background (1). Use the natural way to communicate, like a baby learning its mother tongue. In the late 19th century in Europe, for economic development, the communication among nations became more frequent. Foreign languages learning was highly demanded.

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background 1
Background (1)
  • Use the natural way to communicate, like a baby learning its mother tongue.
  • In the late 19th century in Europe, for economic development, the communication among nations became more frequent.
  • Foreign languages learning was highly demanded.
  • Oral communication became the main goal of foreign language teaching.
background 2
Background (2)
  • Revolution to Grammar Translation Method. One of the revolutionists was Francois Gouin.
  • First introduced in France and Germany.
  • Berlitz (Maximilian D. Berlitz,1852-1921) used extensively in Rhode Island, USA, and opened the first language school.
language 1
Language (1)
  • Strong theoretical base in linguistics and psychology.
  • Language is primarily spoken, not written.
  • The basic unit of a language is sentence.
  • Learning how to use a foreign language to communicate.
  • No translation is allowed.
language 2
Language (2)
  • Emphasising vocabulary acquisition through exposure to its use in situations.
  • Meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target language through the use of demonstration and visual aids.
teaching 1
Teaching (1)
  • Direct communication: as baby learning mother tongue.
  • Imitation: repetition and practice
  • Association: e.g.: hand – arm, shoulder, foot, leg…
teaching 2
Teaching (2)

Kelly’s 5 steps of teaching:

  • Preparation: review previous lesson.
  • Presentation: introduce new lesson.
  • Association: associate previous and new lessons.
  • Systematization: systematize the new lesson in certain situation.
  • Application: practice
slide8
Goal
  • Learn how to communicate I the target language- learn to think in the target language.
  • Correct pronunciation
  • Emphasise on listening and speaking. (GTM: reading, writing and translation)
  • Think in target languages. No native language. No translation.
  • Learning basic sentences, introducing daily life.
role of the teacher students
Role of the teacher/ students
  • Teacher centered. Student role is less passive than in GTM.
  • T/S are partners.
  • Teacher is the only demonstrator. He/she never translates but demonstrates the meaning through the use of realia, pictures or pantomime.
activities berlitz school 1
Activities–Berlitz School(1)
  • Never translate: demonstrate.
  • Never explain: act.
  • Never make a speech: ask questions.
  • Never imitate mistake: correct.
  • Never speak with single words: use sentences.
  • Never speak too much: make Ss speak much.
activities berlitz school 2
Activities –Berlitz School(2)
  • Never jump around: follow your plan.
  • Never go too fast: keep the pace of the Ss.
  • Never speak too slowly: speak normally.
  • Never speak too quickly: speak naturally.
  • Never speak too loudly: speak naturally.
  • Never be impatient: take it easy.
techniques
Techniques
  • Reading loud
  • Question and answer exercise
  • Getting students to self-correct
  • Conversation practice
  • Fill-in-the-blank exercise
  • Dictation
  • Map drawing
  • Paragraph writing
characteristics 1
Characteristics (1)
  • Associate meaning and the target language directly.
  • Demonstrate meanings through the use of realia, pictures, and pantomime.
  • Ss speak in the target language a great deal and communicate as if they were in real situations.
  • Method is based upon situations.
characteristics 2
Characteristics (2)
  • Grammar is taught inductively: Ss are presented with examples.
  • Grammar rules are never given.
  • Ss practice vocabulary by using new words in complete sentences.
conclusion comments
Conclusion/ Comments
  • Language learning should be of use.
  • Immersion.
  • Good for the class of small size.
  • Culture should be taught about people’s daily lives.