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The Baroque and Rococo 1600-1750

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  1. The Baroque and Rococo 1600-1750 • Action • Passion • Healthy Eaters.

  2. Counter Reformation was over- Catholic Church was strong again-Protestantism was on the defensive • Baroque artists were far removed from science and technology unlike during the Renaissance (too complicated) • Affected by the absolutist states (France, Germany, England) • Rome became Baroque art’s center- Popes were still largest patrons (aimed to make Rome the most beautiful city of Christendom)-ambitious artists flocked to Rome for commissions

  3. 1571-1610 • Remote from both Mannerism and Renaissance • New form of art called “Naturalism”- a sacred scene painted in contemporary low life • Story of Matthew the tax collector-figure on the far right is Jesus • Light is both natural and charged with symbolic meaning • Religious monumentalism would appeal to both Catholics and Protestants (later became Rembrandt’s influence) Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew, 1599-1602

  4. Strong Light, action-packed paintings Caravaggio, Judith, early 17th C.

  5. Born into an artistic family which gave her an advantage over other women artists • Became one of the leading painters and personalities of her day • Subject of Judith popular during Baroque- violent and erotic scene • Immortalizes feminine courage • Very theatrical, mysterious light • Complex composition Artemesia Genteleschi, Judith and Maidservant, 1625

  6. Became so famous, that it was considered second only to Michelangelo and Raphael • Intricate narrative scenes surrounded by architecture • Subject matter is the loves of the classical gods • Color is based on the Venetians • Balance of studies from life with a revival of the classics (including the Renaissance masters) Carracci, Palazzo Farnese, Rome, 1597-1601

  7. Carracci, Landscape with the Flight into Egypt, 1603 • Pastoral mood and soft light are influenced by Titian • Figures are almost inconspicuous -like northern painters (Breugal) • Early example of the ideal lasndscape

  8. Ceiling Frescos became more and more popular • Illusionistic-shows the sky behind the regular architectural scheme • Some figures are closer to the viewer and some are farther away in the sky Cortona, Glorification of the Reign of Urban the VIII, 1633-39

  9. The decoration of the interior of St. Peters was a difficult task- to relate a vast space to a human scale • Task fell to Bernini (1598-1680) who worked on St. Peters throughout his career Interior, St. Peters, showing Bernini’s Throne

  10. Bernini’s David and Michelangelo’s David have the same relationship as classical and Hellenistic sculpture-each drew inspiration from a different part of antiquity • Bernini shares the Hellenistic view of unison of body and spirit, motion and emotion • Implied presence of Goliath-the negative space is owned by the sculpture • During the Baroque, sculpture merged with painting and architecture like in no other time period before Bernini, David, 1623

  11. Sensuous visual experience • Shows the moment where St. Teresa is pierced by an angel’s arrow and felt both emotional pain and sweetness at the same time • Because of the lighting, the sculpture looks visionary • Some outside (from above) force is blowing their clothing • Sculpture is connected in this way to a fresco directly above it Bernini, The Ecstasy of St. Teresa, 1645-52

  12. In the Choir of St. Peters • Focus is a burst of heavenly light that propels all the figures towards the viewer Bernini, Throne of St. Peters, 1657-66

  13. Francesco Borromini- the role of the tortured artist- died by suicide • Very complex and extravagant structures • Play of concave and convex surfaces makes structure seem pulled apart • Merges architecture and sculpture • Plan is like a half-melted cross • Combines Renaissance and Medieval structures Borromini, S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, 1665-67

  14. Great architect of late Baroque • Central European (Vienna) • Pantheon-like portico, columns should look familiar to you!! • The power of the Christian faith to absorb and change the splendors of ancient art Von Erlach, St. Charles Borromaeus, 1716-37

  15. Baroque in Flanders • Peter Paul Rubens 1577-1640 • Helped to break down artistic barriers between north and south • Studied art of the High Renaissance • Artist of major influence-court advisor to Spanish regent in Flanders • Altarpiece • Muscular figures of Italian art, lighting reflect Caravaggio • Definitely a Flemish realist • Tremendous dramatic force-almost bursts through the picture plane Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, 1609-10

  16. In the Luxembourg Palace in Paris • Not a very exciting event, but Rubens has made it so-Neptune rises from the sea (has protected her on her journey) • Used oil sketches to prepare for his paintings- this was an important legacy for future artists Rubens, Marie de-Medici, Queen of France, Landing in Marseilles, 1622-23

  17. The Utrecht School-Baroque came to Holland through Rubens • Utrecht was a Catholic city- most artists traveled to Rome- • Influenced by Caravaggio • Franz Hals 1580-1666-great portrait painter • Spontaneity- twinkling eyes, SMILE! • Worked in dashing brushstrokes-immediacy of design but spent a long time (lifesize!) Franz Hals, The Laughing Cavalier, 1630

  18. Follower of Hals • Poetic quality of life • Celebration of self Leyster, Self Portrait, 1630

  19. Art effected by Caravaggio-sharply lit • Painted mostly Old Testament scenes at first and was a well-sought-after portrait painter • Night Watch- a group portrait-Some people say that people were angry for being portrayed in shadow so he lost popular opinion-had financial difficulties Rembrandt, The Night Watch, 1642

  20. Did many self portraits- always reflects the view of himself and his inner development • Influenced by Titian and Van Eyke Rembrandt, Self Portrait, 1658

  21. Most art buyers preferred landscapes and still lifes • Vanitas, Vanitas!- all is vanity • disguised symbolism is back!!! • The passing of all earthly pleasures Willem Claesz Heda, Still Life 1634

  22. Jan Vermeer- master of the genre paintings- but no narrative • Usually solitary, usually women-almost like still-lifes • Light always filters in from an implied window-everyday world seems fresh and new • Made up of rectangles, no undefined empty spaces • Know very little about his life- died when he was 43, lived in Delft • Genius not recognized until 100 years ago Vermeer, Girl in Blue Reading a Letter, 1663-64

  23. Baroque in Spain---did not happen natively, but through the spread of ideas from Italy and the Netherlands • Caravaggio-esque, but focused more on genre scenes • This was done at the age of 20 • Moved to Madrid and became court painter- portraits of the royal family Velasquez, The Water Carrier of Seville, c.1619

  24. Valazquez’s style at its fullest- a self portrait, a group portrait and a genre scene • Mirror in the back of the room- is it on the canvas or behind? • Fascination with light and its optical mysteries-reflected and direct • Light creates the visual world Velazquez, The Maids of Honor, 1656

  25. France was the most powerful state in Europe- culturally too! • Art center changed from Rome to Paris because of large projects (Versailles) • Also called “Style of Loius XIV” or the “Classic” style- links to other high points in culture • De La Tour- oriented towards Caravaggio- both a religious and genre scene- intimate and tender De La Tour, Joseph the Carpenter, 1645

  26. Classicism reigned supreme • Earliest French painter in history to gain international fame • Freezes action, like statues, Roman architecture in the background • Shows emotion but doesn’t touch the viewer • Logical and serious • Thought that the viewer should be able to “read” the exact emotions of each figure • Not very accessible Poussin, The Rape of the Sabine Women, 1636-37

  27. Perrault, Louvre, 1667-70 • All art had to be made to glorify the king- very restrictive “royal” style • Design meant to link the king with Roman emperors-Roman temple front -ground floor serves as the podium • Showed victory of French “royal” style over Italian classicism

  28. Lebrun, Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles, 1678 • Louis XIV interested in lavish interiors rather than the exterior • Entire interior decorated by Lebrun, a painter-became the dictator of the arts in France • All art became for the glorification of the king- reflects Italian Baroque style (ceilings)

  29. Louis Le Vau, Hardouin Mansart, Palace of Versailles, 1669-85 • Design grew and grew to accommodate the royal family’s wishes • Garden is most impressive aspect of the palace-meant to serve as the background for the King’s official appearances

  30. Royal Academy- new system of educating artists founded in 1648-very rigid- had a grading system for all artists including past-Greeks came first, then Raphael-Flemish ranked low • Produced no significant artists! • Became an argument over drawing v. color (Poussinistes V. Rubenistes) • educated v. lay Watteau, Delights of Life, 1717 • Watteau was a Rubeniste-violates all academy canons • Admitted to the academy anyway because it had lost a lot of clout by this time • Slim and graceful rather than round like Rubens

  31. Rococo Style- after the death of Louis XIV, people became less centralized- art made for interiors and private collection • Means “playful decoration” • Fragonard sensual in style and subject, lacks emotional depth, graceful • Style ends with the Revolution Fragonard, The Bolt, 1778

  32. Chardin, Still life, c.1731 • Rubenistes cleared way for revival of Dutch painting-Chardin is a master • Sense of spatial order- each object seems very important-respect for everyday objects- symbols, but not religious- everyday people

  33. Sir Christopher Wren- Very intellectual -like a Renaissance man but no apparent direct link between his scientific and artistic ideas • design classical in nature • Great fire of London in 1666 destroyed the old St. Paul’s • Named to the Royal commission for rebuilding the city • Effected by the design for the Louvre • Wanted it to be the St. Peters of England Wren, St. Paul’s Cathedra, 1675-1710l

  34. Hogarth, The Rake’s Progress, c. 1734 • England never accepted Rococo style- became the object of satire • English painting became more important than it had been since the Middle Ages • William Hogarth was a “Dramatist”-paintings and prints came in sets-morality plays that espoused middle class virtues- very narrative in nature

  35. Portraiture was constant source of income for English painters- Gainsborough became a master at this-a a favorite of high society • Cool elegance • Rubenesque technique • Enlightenment- painting must include both nature and art- Hume’s “Natural Man”- free of excessive pride or humility Thomas Gainsborough, Blue Boy

  36. Great rival of Gainsborough • Believed in the French Academy’s academic approach • Had his own written art rules • Painted allegorical portraits • Rembrandt-like lighting • Unlike Gainsborough, Reynolds believed that art must conform to the example of poetry, be it epic or tragic (Horace) • Borrowed poses from antiquity to elevate the individual to a universal type Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mrs. Siddon as the Tragic Muse, 1784