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Investigating the Relationship between Perceived Maternal Acceptance-Rejection and the Psychological Well-Being of African American Young Adults. and roles of African American Mothers…. MOTHERS REMAIN IN THE ROLE OF MAIN CAREGIVER. CO-PARENT. Caregiver + contributor to economy. Background:.

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Investigating the Relationship between Perceived Maternal Acceptance-Rejection and the Psychological Well-Being of African American Young Adults
background

and roles of African American Mothers…

MOTHERS REMAIN IN THE ROLE OF MAIN CAREGIVER

CO-PARENT

Caregiver + contributor to economy

Background:

Historical Overview of AA Fatherhood…

STERN PATRIARCH

BREADWINNER

FREEMEN’SBUREAU

GENIAL PLAYMATE/ROLE MODEL

SEX-ROLE MODEL

CO-PARENT

background3
Background:

Importance of Topic:

  • Defines the specific contributions mothers have on a child’s psychological Well-Being
  • Promotes understanding of the impact that “non present” mothers have on child psychological Well-Being
  • Provides a new way to conceptualize a mother’s behavior in relation to children’s Well-Being.
  • Recognizes need to increase the number of studies on topic, on this population, and this age group
theory
Theory:
  • PARTheory, personality subtheory which seeks to explain main causes and consequences of parental nurturance as children perceive their relationship with their parent
  • PARTheory looks at parental acceptance and rejection and how it affect children’s development, and follows them through adulthood.
  • Parental acceptance-rejection construct the

warmth dimension of parenting

Theoretical tools used:

Rohner’s,1986

study aims
Study Aims:

How does perceived maternal nurturance affect the psychological well-being of African Americans emerging into adulthood?

hypothesis
Hypothesis:
  • There is a positive correlation between perceived maternal acceptance and the psychological well-being of young adults.
  • As perceived maternal warmth

increases, the young adult’s

psychological well-being will increase.

the results
The Results:

Parental Acceptance Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ):

Mean score, M=37.1,SD=12.93,n= 228

Findings: Students experienced significantly lower levels of maternal rejection and higher levels of acceptance

during adolescence

the results8
The Results:

Personality Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ):

Mean score, M= 120.78 , SD= 25.80, n= 189

Findings: Indicate that this sample population experienced a moderate level of self-reported well- being.

the results9
The Results:

Bi-variate correlation:

The correlation proves to be moderate, indicating

that there is a relationship between perceived

maternal acceptance and the psychological well-being

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

results
Results:

Scatter Gram:

Provides a graphic view of relationship that exist between mother nurturance and

psychological well-being

discussion
Discussion:

Hypothesis

  • Moderate positive relationship

Relationship to PARTheory:

  • Parental relationshipspredictor of child’s well-being (Rohner’s, 1986)

Relationship to Theory:

  • Gecas & Schwalbe
  • Veneziano (2000)
  • Brynum and Kotchick, 2006
discussion12
Discussion:

Limitations

  • Generalizing results
  • Cross-sectional study
      • Sample of convenience
      • Not causal relationship
      • Ambiguity

Future Research

  • Maternal nurturance at different developmental

stages and gender differences.

references
References:
  • Adams, P., Milner, J., and Schrepf, N. (1984). Fatherless children. Canada: John Wilney & Sons Inc.
  • Alvarez, J.R., Farber, B.A., & Schonbar, R.A. (1998). The relationship of psychological mindedness to adult perceptions of early parental rejection. Journal of Clinical
  • Psychology, 54, 1079-1084.
  • Appelbaum, S.A. (1973). Psychological-mindedness: Word, concept and essence.
  • International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 54, 35-46.
  • Bynum, M. S. and Kotchick, B. A. Mother-adolescent relationship quality and autonomy as predictors of psychosocial adjustment among African American adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(5), 528-541. Retrieved 9-20-2007 from PsycINFO database.
  • Coley, R. L. (2001). (In)visible men: Emerging research on low-income, unmarried, and minority fathers. American Psychologist, 56(9), 743-753. Retrieved 9/2/2007 from PsycINFO database.
  • Crouch, B. A. (1994). The "chords of love": Legalizing black marital and family rights in postwar Texas. The Journal of Negro History, 79(4), 334-351. Retrieved 9-2-2007 from JSTOR database.
  • Franklin, D. L. (1997). Ensuring inequality: The structural transformation of the African American family. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Gadsden, V.L. and Smith, R.R. (1994). African American males and fatherhood: Issues in research and practice. The Journal of Negro Education, 63(4), 634-648. Retrieved 9-2-2007 from JSTOR database.
references14
References
  • Gecas, V. and Schwalbe, M. L. (1986). Parental behavior and adolescent self-esteem. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48(1), 37-46.
  • Ispa, J. M.; Fine, M. A.; Halgunseth, L. C.; and Harper, S. (2004). Maternal intrusiveness, maternal warmth, and Mother–Toddler relationship outcomes: Variations across low-income ethnic and acculturation groups. Child Development, 75(6), 1613-1631.
  • LaRossa, R. (1988). Fatherhood and social change. Family Relations, 37(4), 451-457.
  • McAdoo, J. L. (1993). The role of African American fathers: An ecological perspective. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 74, 28-35.
  • Ohannessian,C; Lerner R.;Lerner, J.; and Alexander, E. (1998). Perceived Parental Acceptance and Early Adolescent Self- Competence. American Journal of Onhopsychiatry, 68(4)
  • Rohner, R. P. and Veneziano, R. A. (2001). The importance of fatherly love: History and contemporary evidence. Review of General Psychology, 5(4), 382-405.
  • Rohner, R. P. (1986). PART's personality theory and its historical antecedents. The warmth dimension: Foundations of parental acceptance-rejection theory. (pp. 66-87). Beverly Hills: SAGE Publications, Inc.
  • Rohner, R. P., Khaleque, A. & & Cournoyer, D. E. ((N.D.)). Parental acceptance-rejection theory, methods, evidence, and implications. Retrieved 9-2-2007www.cepar.uconn.edu
  • Summers, J. A., Boller, K., Schiffman, R. F., and Raikes, H.H. (2006). The mmenaing of "good fatherhood:" low-income fathers' social constructions of their roles. Parenting: Science and Practice, 6(2), 145-165. Retrieved 9-5-2007 from JSTOR database.
  • Veneziano, R. A. (2000). Perceived paternal and maternal acceptance and rural African American and European American youths' psychological adjustment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62(1), 123-132.