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Congressional Nanotechnology Caucus September 10, 2007 Nanotechnology Electronics and Photonics Walt Trybula, Ph.D. IEEE Fellow & SPIE Fellow Director Nanomaterials Application Center Texas State University-San Marcos Objective of Presentation

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nanotechnology electronics and photonics

Congressional Nanotechnology Caucus

September 10, 2007

NanotechnologyElectronics and Photonics

Walt Trybula, Ph.D.

IEEE Fellow & SPIE Fellow


Nanomaterials Application Center

Texas State University-San Marcos

objective of presentation
Objective of Presentation
  • Present an update on the status of nano technology developments in Electronics and Photonics
  • Provide a glimpse of the challenges of implementing nano technology in these areas
  • Highlight some advantages of implementing the nano technology into products
  • Indicate the importance of moving forward with nano technology implementations
transistor evolution
Transistor Evolution

Future: 15 years

Non-classical CMOS

Beyond CMOS

what is the infrastructure



What is the Infrastructure?
  • For Semiconductors – Lithography
    • Exposure tools (create images)
    • Mask (pattern for exposure tools)
    • Resist (Form images on wafer)
    • Metrology (measure/characterize images)
    • [each line above has a corresponding infrastructure]
  • Mask Infrastructure Example
    • Pattern Generator
    • Mask Substrate Material
    • Inspection Tools
    • Repair Tools
      • Laser Repair
      • Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Repair
      • E-beam Repair

The “nano”


quantum dot transistors
Quantum Dot Transistors

Gated quantum wire in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure 2DEG.

Prof. Gregory Spencer – Texas State University

novel memory
Novel Memory

Picture courtesy of M. Meyyappan

molecular electronics
Molecular Electronics

Konstantin Likharev, The Industrial Physicist, June/July 2003, p.20

changed material properties
Changed Material Properties

Melting point of Gold


Ray Solanki, Oregon Science and Health University, Feb.23, 2004 issue Applied Physics Letter

solar cells organic
Solar Cells (Organic)

Credit: Nicole Cappello and the Georgia Institute of Technology

new material properties
New Material Properties

Silver properties reported May 30, 2006 in NanoTechWeb

Platinum experiments reported by University of Stuttgart


Au dot structure


Nanowire Twinning

Aberration Corrected HR-TEM Korgel Group Si Nanowire


Aberration Corrected TEM Imaging


Not corrected

K & I in nanotube

Sloan, et al., MRS Bulletin, April 2004


S. R. J. Brueck, University of New Mexico

optical transmission on a chip
Optical Transmission on a Chip

Intel picture – April 2004 in

why employ photonics
Why Employ Photonics?

Consolidated European Photonics Research Initiative

Photonics for the 21st Century

photonics european projections
Photonics – European Projections

Consolidated European Photonics Research Initiative

Photonics for the 21st Century

early entry is required
Early Entry is Required
  • Being late means losing leading edge capabilities
  • Catching up requires investing in the old technology and the new technology simultaneously
    • Requires very deep governmental funding
    • Requires trained workforce.
  • Being “leading edge” means always being in the race to improve both people and equipment
  • Significant benefits come to the early successful entries
  • High value jobs are part of the reward of being successful in developing the emerging technology
development interdependency
Development Interdependency

The U.S. must possess every element of the “nano” manufacturing infrastructure

Semiconductor Failure Example:

248nm Exposure Tool

    • Ready for production in 1991
    • Only reached production in 1995
  • Why was there a 4 year delay?
    • Resists were not production worthy
    • Resulting in insufficient experience
    • Resulting in lack of willingness to take risks

To be successful with technology introduction, the complete infrastructure must be ready at the beginning

research challenges
Research Challenges

Nano technology brings on new challenges

  • Existing tools for investigations at the atomic level are expensive to acquire and maintain
  • New research tools need to be developed to explore the nano realm
  • Specialized facilities are required to maintain the cleanliness need for nano technology
  • A new infrastructure might be required for the equipment yet-to-be-developed
education challenges
Education Challenges

Nano technology requires education and training in multiple fields for successful collaboration

  • Combinations of chemistry, physics, engineering, biology, computer science, and many related disciplines are needed to fully understand the development of nano technology
  • The development of the nano technology industry will require well educated technicians
  • Scientific education needs to begin early in the learning process
  • There are many opportunities to incorporate nano technologies into innovative products
  • Fundamental research is required to understand the potential applications of the properties of nano materials
  • Future high tech products will incorporate the advantages of nano-materials
  • From the national interests, it is important for researchers to continue to push the understanding of nano technology
  • The U.S. has the technical capability and is evolving nano-technology into a business environment
  • Building from S/C1 provides ability to coordinate industry, university, and infrastructure roles in developing “nano” in more than electronics
  • Tools and facilities for nano are expensive
  • Nano-technology requires being on the leading edge of developments including equipment
  • Infrastructure development must be sustained
  • Continual evaluation of “weak” links is required

1S/C = semiconductor



  • Texas State University-San Marcos is a premier, student-centered public university offering baccalaureate, masters and doctoral degrees to students on a traditional residentialcampus.
  • Founded: 1899 as SWT State Normal School
  • President: Dr. Denise M. Trauth
  • Campus area: 427 acres in main campus (including 4,322 acres of farm, ranch & recreational areas)
  • 110 Undergraduate majors
  • (7 academic colleges)
  • 84 Masters programs
  • 6 PhD programs
  • EE Program (Fall ’07)
  • MSE Ph.D. Program (‘09)
  • Total student enrollment (27,503)
  • Undergraduate (23,022)
  • Hispanic/ Latino (5,025) (21%)
  • 1110 Faculty
  • 93% teach on the undergraduate level.

Fall 2007

n anomaterials a pplication c enter

MISSION: The Nanomaterials Application Centerat Texas State University-San Marcos coordinates, facilitates, disseminates information, and expedites nanoscience and nanoengineering developments to expedite the commercialization of innovation.

GOAL:Accelerate the development of high technology and the dissemination of these developments in order to expedite commercialization.

nano safety

The Nanomaterials Application Center is addressing four key areas for developing a NANO-SAFETY collaborative effort that identifies the nanomaterial properties, the effect on humans and the environment, the means of handling the materials correctly, and the procedures that must be in place to minimize risk in applications. Discussions have been initiated with numerous organizations in order to address this critical issue.

contact information
Contact Information

Walt Trybula, Ph.D.

IEEE Fellow & SPIE Fellow


Nanomaterials Application Center

Texas State University-San Marcos



The Trybula Foundation, Inc.