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Nanotechnology Electronics and Photonics

Nanotechnology Electronics and Photonics

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Nanotechnology Electronics and Photonics

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  1. Congressional Nanotechnology Caucus September 10, 2007 NanotechnologyElectronics and Photonics Walt Trybula, Ph.D. IEEE Fellow & SPIE Fellow Director Nanomaterials Application Center http://www.nanotxstate.org Texas State University-San Marcos

  2. Objective of Presentation • Present an update on the status of nano technology developments in Electronics and Photonics • Provide a glimpse of the challenges of implementing nano technology in these areas • Highlight some advantages of implementing the nano technology into products • Indicate the importance of moving forward with nano technology implementations

  3. Format Employed for Examples

  4. Semiconductor Conductivity

  5. Transistor Evolution Future: 15 years Non-classical CMOS Beyond CMOS

  6. Wire Via What is the Infrastructure? • For Semiconductors – Lithography • Exposure tools (create images) • Mask (pattern for exposure tools) • Resist (Form images on wafer) • Metrology (measure/characterize images) • [each line above has a corresponding infrastructure] • Mask Infrastructure Example • Pattern Generator • Mask Substrate Material • Inspection Tools • Repair Tools • Laser Repair • Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Repair • E-beam Repair The “nano” region

  7. Quantum Dot Transistors Gated quantum wire in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure 2DEG. Prof. Gregory Spencer – Texas State University

  8. Novel Memory Picture courtesy of M. Meyyappan

  9. Molecular Electronics Konstantin Likharev, The Industrial Physicist, June/July 2003, p.20

  10. Changed Material Properties Melting point of Gold

  11. Nanowires Ray Solanki, Oregon Science and Health University, Feb.23, 2004 issue Applied Physics Letter

  12. Carbon Nano Tubes (CNT)

  13. Solar Cells (Organic) Credit: Nicole Cappello and the Georgia Institute of Technology

  14. New Material Properties Silver properties reported May 30, 2006 in NanoTechWeb Platinum experiments reported by University of Stuttgart

  15. Metrology Au dot structure & Nanowire Twinning Aberration Corrected HR-TEM Korgel Group Si Nanowire

  16. Metrology Aberration Corrected TEM Imaging Corrected Not corrected K & I in nanotube Sloan, et al., MRS Bulletin, April 2004

  17. Photonics S. R. J. Brueck, University of New Mexico

  18. Optical Transmission on a Chip Intel picture – April 2004 in DeviceForce.com

  19. Why Employ Photonics? Consolidated European Photonics Research Initiative Photonics for the 21st Century

  20. Photonics – European Projections Consolidated European Photonics Research Initiative Photonics for the 21st Century

  21. Early Entry is Required • Being late means losing leading edge capabilities • Catching up requires investing in the old technology and the new technology simultaneously • Requires very deep governmental funding • Requires trained workforce. • Being “leading edge” means always being in the race to improve both people and equipment • Significant benefits come to the early successful entries • High value jobs are part of the reward of being successful in developing the emerging technology

  22. Development Interdependency The U.S. must possess every element of the “nano” manufacturing infrastructure Semiconductor Failure Example: 248nm Exposure Tool • Ready for production in 1991 • Only reached production in 1995 • Why was there a 4 year delay? • Resists were not production worthy • Resulting in insufficient experience • Resulting in lack of willingness to take risks To be successful with technology introduction, the complete infrastructure must be ready at the beginning

  23. Research Challenges Nano technology brings on new challenges • Existing tools for investigations at the atomic level are expensive to acquire and maintain • New research tools need to be developed to explore the nano realm • Specialized facilities are required to maintain the cleanliness need for nano technology • A new infrastructure might be required for the equipment yet-to-be-developed

  24. Education Challenges Nano technology requires education and training in multiple fields for successful collaboration • Combinations of chemistry, physics, engineering, biology, computer science, and many related disciplines are needed to fully understand the development of nano technology • The development of the nano technology industry will require well educated technicians • Scientific education needs to begin early in the learning process

  25. Summary • There are many opportunities to incorporate nano technologies into innovative products • Fundamental research is required to understand the potential applications of the properties of nano materials • Future high tech products will incorporate the advantages of nano-materials • From the national interests, it is important for researchers to continue to push the understanding of nano technology

  26. Conclusions • The U.S. has the technical capability and is evolving nano-technology into a business environment • Building from S/C1 provides ability to coordinate industry, university, and infrastructure roles in developing “nano” in more than electronics • Tools and facilities for nano are expensive • Nano-technology requires being on the leading edge of developments including equipment • Infrastructure development must be sustained • Continual evaluation of “weak” links is required 1S/C = semiconductor

  27. ABOUT TEXAS STATE • Texas State University-San Marcos is a premier, student-centered public university offering baccalaureate, masters and doctoral degrees to students on a traditional residentialcampus. • Founded: 1899 as SWT State Normal School • President: Dr. Denise M. Trauth • Campus area: 427 acres in main campus (including 4,322 acres of farm, ranch & recreational areas) • 110 Undergraduate majors • (7 academic colleges) • 84 Masters programs • 6 PhD programs • EE Program (Fall ’07) • MSE Ph.D. Program (‘09) • Total student enrollment (27,503) • Undergraduate (23,022) • Hispanic/ Latino (5,025) (21%) • 1110 Faculty • 93% teach on the undergraduate level. http://www.txstate.edu Fall 2007

  28. NANOMATERIALS APPLICATION CENTER MISSION: The Nanomaterials Application Centerat Texas State University-San Marcos coordinates, facilitates, disseminates information, and expedites nanoscience and nanoengineering developments to expedite the commercialization of innovation. GOAL:Accelerate the development of high technology and the dissemination of these developments in order to expedite commercialization.

  29. NANO-SAFETY The Nanomaterials Application Center is addressing four key areas for developing a NANO-SAFETY collaborative effort that identifies the nanomaterial properties, the effect on humans and the environment, the means of handling the materials correctly, and the procedures that must be in place to minimize risk in applications. Discussions have been initiated with numerous organizations in order to address this critical issue.

  30. Contact Information Walt Trybula, Ph.D. IEEE Fellow & SPIE Fellow w.trybula@ieee.org Director Nanomaterials Application Center Texas State University-San Marcos w.trybula@txstate.edu +1.512.245.6062 Director The Trybula Foundation, Inc. w.trybula@tryb.org +1.512.695.4026