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MEDICAL EMERGENCIES. Dealing with an Medical Emergency. A medical emergency is an accidental injury or a medical crisis that is very severe or life threatening, such as: The person is not breathing. Stroke or heart attack. Severe bleeding. Shock. Poisoning. Burns.

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dealing with an medical emergency
Dealing with an Medical Emergency

A medical emergency is an accidental injury or a medical crisis that is very severe or life threatening, such as:

  • The person is not breathing.
  • Stroke or heart attack.
  • Severe bleeding.
  • Shock.
  • Poisoning.
  • Burns.

A medical emergency requires your immediate attention, sometimes even before you telephone emergency services for help.

activating the ems system
Activating the EMS system
  • Do you know how to call for emergency services? (Important to know)‏
  • Life threatening Emergencies: Unconscious, No breathing or breathing in a strange way, No heartbeat, severe bleeding
heart attack
Heart Attack
  • Uncomfortable pressure, fullness, squeezing, or pain in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes or that goes away and comes back.
  • Pain spreading to the shoulders, neck, or arms
  • Chest discomfort with lightheadedness, fainting, sweating, nausea, or shortness of breath.
what to do
What to do ?
  • Don’t delay; take prompt action
  • Call EMS
  • Monitor ABC’s and give CPR if necessary
  • Help victim into the least painful position, usually a half-sitting position. Loosen tight clothing. Be calm and reassuring
  • Give nitroglycerin tablets if patient is a heart patient.


  • Apply direct pressure to the wound with a direct pressure bandage.
  • Elevate the wound to slow the bleeding
  • Pressure Point when necessary apply additional pressure to help reduce bleeding.

Specific Bleeding

  • Nose
    • Pinch
    • Lean Forward – NOT BACKWARD
    • Sit On Floor


Fainting is a brief loss of consciousness that is

caused by a temporary reduction of blood

flow to the brain.

  • A brief loss of consciousness causing the casualty to fall to the floor
  • A slow pulse
  • Pale, cold skin and sweating
what to look for
What to look for
  • A person who is about to faint usually will have one or more of the following signs and symptoms:
    • Dizziness
    • Weakness
    • Seeing spots
    • Visual blurring
    • Nausea
    • Pale skin
    • Sweating


  • Taking in too little food and fluids (dehydration)‏
  • Low blood pressure
  • Lack of sleep
  • Over exhaustion


  • Position the victim lying on his/her back and elevate his/her legs above heart level
  • Check the victim’s airway to ensure it is clear.
  • Check for signs of breathing, coughing, or movement
  • Loosen clothing (neck ties, collars, belts etc.)‏
  • If consciousness is not regained within one minute Call EMS


Shock occurs when the circulatory system fails, and insufficient oxygen reaches the tissues. If the condition is not treated quickly, vital organs can fail, ultimately causing death. Shock is made worse by fear and pain.


Shock - Signs

  • Pale, Bluish, Cool, Moist Skin
  • Rapid Breathing
  • Restlessness or Irritability
  • Nausea and/or Vomiting


  • Keep the victim lying down (if possible).
  • Elevate legs 10-12 inches… unless you suspect a back injury or broken bones.
  • Cover the victim to maintain body temperature.
  • Provide the victim with plenty of fresh air and space.
  • If victim begins to vomit - place him/her on his/her left side.
  • Loosen restrictive clothing

Muscle Cramps

> stretch out the affected muscle to counteract the cramp

> massage the cramped muscle firmly

> apply moist heat to the area

> get medical help if the cramp persists

Strains and Sprains (R.I.C.E.)‏

* Rest- avoid movements and activities that cause pain.

* Ice- ice helps reduce pain and swelling.

* Compression- light pressure from wearing an elastic wrap or bandage can help reduce swelling.

* Elevation- raising the affected limb about the level of the heart reduces pain and swelling.



A fracture is a break or crack in the

continuity of the bone.

  • Pain at or near fractured site
  • Tenderness on gentle pressure
  • Swelling over the fracture site
  • Deformity e.g. irregularity of bone, angulation or rotation of limb, depression of bone etc.
  • Loss of power
  • Signs and symptoms of shock


A dislocation is the displacement of one or more

bones at a joint. It usually occurs in the shoulders, elbow, thumb, fingers and the lower jaw.

  • Pain at the site of injury
  • Limited movement at joint
  • Deformity
  • Swelling
  • Tenderness


I – A – C – T

  • I - Immobilize area Stop any movement by supporting injured area. Use pillows, jackets, blankets, etc.
  • A - Activate Emergency Medical Services (EMS), call 911.
  • C - Care for shock
  • T - Treat any additional secondary injuries.


  • Symptoms
  • Causes
early warning signs of an asthma attack
Early Warning Signs of an Asthma Attack
  • Coughing with no cold
  • Wheezing (however light), especially upon exhaling
  • Fast/irregular breathing
  • Anxiousness
  • Cyanosis (bluish skin color)‏
  • Nostrils flaring with each breath
what to do1
What to do ?
  • Keep the victim in a comfortable upright position and leaning slightly forward. This is known as the “tripod” position. Generally the victim will dictate what position is most tolerable, usually sitting up since that makes it easier to breathe.
  • Check and monitor ABC’s.
  • Try to calm and reassure; help relax the victim
  • Administer warm fluids if possible.
  • Ask the victim about any asthma medication he or she may be using. Usually the victim will have an inhaler nearby.
  • If the victim does not respond to his or her inhaled medication, seek medical attention immediately.

Diabetic Emergencies

  • High-blood sugar
    • diabetic coma (Hyperglycemia)‏
  • Low -blood sugar
    • insulin shock (Hypoglycemia)‏
  • Give Sugar
    • Only if taken without assistance
    • Sugar, Soda, Soft Candy
diabetic emergencies
Diabetic Emergencies
  • Insulin shock – Too much insulin (giving a shot with too much insulin; lack of activity; not eating for a long period of time; etc.)‏
  • Also known as low blood sugar (blood sugar levels less than 80).
  • Symptoms: sudden onset, irritability (cry, belligerent, etc.), hungry (especially a craving for sweets), perspire excessively, trembling, dizzy/disoriented/pale, pulse is generally full and normal.
  • This condition is potentially life threatening.
what are the symptoms of hypoglycemia
What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia?
  • Headache
  • Sweating
  • Shakiness
  • Pale, moist, cold and clammy skin
  • Extreme hunger
  • Weakness/dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Rapid pulse rate
  • Blurred vision
  • Shallow breathing
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Loss of coordination
  • Mental confusion
  • Seizure
  • Loss of consciousness
first aid for hypoglycemia
First Aid for Hypoglycemia

If victim is known diabetic, his or her mental status is altered, and is awake enough to swallow:

  • Give the person some form of sugar such as a sugar cube, soda, candy, raisins, prescribed candy, honey or corn syrup.
  • Symptoms should subside within 10-15 minutes.
A seizure is the result of an abnormal stimulation of the brain’s cells.
  • A variety of medical conditions can lead to seizures, including the following:
    • Epilepsy
    • Heat stroke
    • Poisoning
    • Electric shock
    • Hypoglycemia
    • High fever in children
    • Brain injury, tumor, or stroke
    • Alcohol withdrawal, drug abuse/overdose


  • Can Look Very Scary
  • Protect Head and Neck
  • Don’t Restrain
  • Move Objects
  • Nothing In The Mouth
For convulsions and grand mal seizures:
    • Cushion the victim’s head; remove items that could cause injury if the person were to bump into them.
    • Loosen tight clothing; especially around neck.
    • Roll the victim onto his or her side.
    • Look for a medical-alert tag
    • As the seizure ends, offer your help. Most seizures in people with epilepsy are not medical emergencies. They end after a minute or two without harm and usually do not require medical attention.
call ems if
  • A seizure happens to someone who is not known to have epilepsy or seizure disorder; it could be a sign of serious illness.
  • A seizure lasts more than five minutes.
  • The victim is slow to recover, has a second seizure, or has difficulty breathing afterward.
  • The victim is pregnant or has another medical condition.
  • There are any signs of injury or illnesses.
do not
  • Give the victim anything to eat or drink.
  • Restrain the victim.
  • Put anything between the victim’s teeth during the seizure.
  • Splash or pour any liquid on the victim’s face.
  • Move the victim to another place (unless it is the only way to protect the victim from injury).
stroke what to look for
STROKE- What to look for ?
  • Weakness, numbness, or paralysis of the face, an arm, or a leg on one side of the body
  • Blurred or decreased vision, especially in one eye
  • Problems speaking or understanding
  • Dizziness or loss of balance
  • Sudden, severe, and unexplained headache
stroke what to do
STROKE-What to do ?
  • Call EMS
  • If victim is unresponsive, check ABC’s; give CPR if necessary
  • If the victim is conscious, lay the victim down with the head and shoulders slightly elevated
  • Do not give a stroke victim anything to drink or eat. The throat may be paralyzed, which restricts swallowing.


  • Flu
  • Vomiting
  • Headaches

Animal Bites

> wash the bite area with mild soap and warm water for five minutes to remove saliva and any other foreign matter.

> use direct pressure or pressure point bleeding control to stop any bleeding.

> if the wound is swollen, apply ice wrapped in a towel for 10 min.

> cover the wound with a clean dressing or bandage.


> often occurs when a person has been breathing dry air.

> seek professional help if they occur often.

> do not tilt the persons head back, this could cause them to choke as the blood runs down their throat.

Object in the Eye

> do not rub the eye

> wash your hands, then flush out the eye by using water.