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GENERAL TOXICOLOGY. GENERAL TOXICOLOGY. CHEMICAL BASIS OF TOXICOLOGY SYSTEMIC RESPONSES TO TOXIC AGENTS TOXICOLOGY OF IONIZING RADIATION GENERAL TOXICOLOGY OF PESTICIDES METAL TOXICITY CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY. CHEMICAL BASIS OF TOXICOLOGY. ABSORPTION & DISTRIBUTION BIOCHEMISTRY OF TOXICITY.

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general toxicology
GENERAL TOXICOLOGY
  • CHEMICAL BASIS OF TOXICOLOGY
  • SYSTEMIC RESPONSES TO TOXIC AGENTS
  • TOXICOLOGY OF IONIZING RADIATION
  • GENERAL TOXICOLOGY OF PESTICIDES
  • METAL TOXICITY
  • CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
chemical basis of toxicology
CHEMICAL BASIS OF TOXICOLOGY
  • ABSORPTION & DISTRIBUTION
  • BIOCHEMISTRY OF TOXICITY
chemical basis of toxicology4
CHEMICAL BASIS OF TOXICOLOGY
  • ADSORPTION
    • DIFFUSION
      • LIPID/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENT
      • CONCENTRATION INSIDE & OUTSIDE THE CELL
chemical basis of toxicology5
CHEMICAL BASIS OF TOXICOLOGY
  • ADSORPTION
    • SPECIALIZED TRANSPORT
      • ACTIVE TRANSPORT
      • FACILITATED DIFFUSION
      • MEMBRANE PROCESSES
        • PHAGOCYTOSIS
        • PINOCYTOSIS
chemical basis of toxicology6
CHEMICAL BASIS OF TOXICOLOGY
  • ADSORPTION
    • SKIN
      • DMSO
      • CCL4
      • PARATHION/MALATHION
      • SARIN (POTENT NERVE GAS)
chemical basis of toxicology7
CHEMICAL BASIS OF TOXICOLOGY
  • ADSORPTION
    • LUNGS
      • PARTICULATES
      • VOLATILE GASES
      • VOLATILE ORGANICS
chemical basis of toxicology8
CHEMICAL BASIS OF TOXICOLOGY
  • DISTRIBUTION
    • CELL TO CELL
    • ORGAN TO ORGAN
    • MOVEMENT INTO TOTAL BODY WATER
      • PLASMA WATER
      • INTERSTITIAL WATER
      • INTRACELLULAR WATER
chemical basis of toxicology9
CHEMICAL BASIS OF TOXICOLOGY
  • BIOCHEMISTRY OF TOXICITY
    • REACTION TYPES
      • OXIDATION
      • REDUCTION
      • HYDROLYSIS
      • CONJUGATION
chemical basis of toxicology10
CHEMICAL BASIS OF TOXICOLOGY
  • OXIDATION
    • OXYGEN IS INCORPORATED INTO THE SUBSTRATE
chemical basis of toxicology11
CHEMICAL BASIS OF TOXICOLOGY
  • REDUCTION
    • THE ADDITION OF ELECTRONS TO THE COMPOUND UNDERGOING REDUCTION
chemical basis of toxicology12
CHEMICAL BASIS OF TOXICOLOGY
  • HYDROLYSIS
    • THE ENZYMATIC CLEAVAGE OF BONDS BY WATER
      • ADDITION OF HYDROGEN
chemical basis of toxicology13
CHEMICAL BASIS OF TOXICOLOGY
  • CONJUGATION
    • USUALLY LAST STEP IN METABOLIC TRANSFORMATION
    • USUALLY GENERATE NON-TOXIC PRODUCTS OF HIGH POLARITY
      • RAPID EXCRETION
chemical basis of toxicology14
CHEMICAL BASIS OF TOXICOLOGY
  • CONJUGATION
    • GLUCURONYL TRANSFER
    • ACETYLATION
    • SULFATION
    • GLUTATHIONE CONJUGATION
systemic responses to toxic agents
SYSTEMIC RESPONSES TO TOXIC AGENTS
  • FACTORS CONTROLLING TARGET ORGAN TOXICITY
  • DERMATOTOXICOLOGY
  • NEPHROTOXIC AGENTS (KIDNEYS)
  • HEPATOTOXIC AGENTS (LIVER)
systemic responses to toxic agents16
SYSTEMIC RESPONSES TO TOXIC AGENTS
  • FACTORS CONTROLLING TARGET ORGAN TOXICITY
    • ROUTE OF EXPOSURE
    • DISTRIBUTION IN THE BODY
    • METABOLISM
    • EXCRETION
    • SENSITIZATION
systemic responses to toxic agents17
SYSTEMIC RESPONSES TO TOXIC AGENTS
  • DERMATOTOXICOLOGY
    • TOXIC DAMAGE (SKIN)
      • PRIMARY IRRITATION
        • ABSOLUTE IRRITANTS
        • RELATIVE IRRITANTS
systemic responses to toxic agents18
SYSTEMIC RESPONSES TO TOXIC AGENTS
  • DERMATOTOXICOLOGY
    • TOXIC DAMAGE (SKIN)
      • SUNLIGHT-ASSOCIATED TOXICITIES
        • PHOTO ALLERGY
        • PHOTOTOXICITY
systemic responses to toxic agents19
SYSTEMIC RESPONSES TO TOXIC AGENTS
  • DERMATOTOXICOLOGY
    • TOXIC DAMAGE (EYE)
      • CORNEA
      • LENS - CATARACT (DINITROPHENOL)
      • RETINA
      • OPTIC NERVE - BLINDNESS (CS2 , METHANOL)
systemic responses to toxic agents20
SYSTEMIC RESPONSES TO TOXIC AGENTS
  • NEPHROTOXIC AGENTS (KIDNEYS)
    • HEAVY METALS

MERCURY LEAD

CADMIUM BISMUTH

URANIUM ARSENIC

systemic responses to toxic agents21
SYSTEMIC RESPONSES TO TOXIC AGENTS
  • NEPHROTOXIC AGENTS (KIDNEYS)
    • MISCELLANEOUS CHEMICALS

ETHYLENE GLYCOL

CARBON TETRACHLORIDE

KEROSENE

systemic responses to toxic agents22
SYSTEMIC RESPONSES TO TOXIC AGENTS
  • HEPATOTOXIC AGENTS (LIVER)
    • TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH LIPID SOLUBLE AGENTS
    • DIRECT LIVER INJURY
      • ALCOHOLIC TYPE
      • TOXIC METABOLITE
    • CHRONIC HEPATOTOXICITY
systemic responses to toxic agents23
SYSTEMIC RESPONSES TO TOXIC AGENTS
  • HEPATOTOXIC AGENTS (LIVER)
    • HEPATIC CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS

VINYL CHLORIDE ARSENIC

PHENOBARBITAL BUTTER YELLOW

TRICHLOROETHYLENE DIOXANE

AFLATOXIN NITROSAMINES

POLYHALOGENATED POLYCYCLIC HYDROCARBONS

toxicology of ionizing radiation
TOXICOLOGY OF IONIZING RADIATION
  • INTERACTIONS OF IONIZING RADIATION WITH MATTER
  • EFFECTS ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
toxicology of ionizing radiation25
TOXICOLOGY OF IONIZING RADIATION
  • INTERACTIONS OF IONIZING RADIATION WITH MATTER
    • INDIRECTLY IONIZING (PHOTONS)
      • X-RAYS
      • GAMMA RAYS
      • NEUTRONS
      • NEUTRAL MESONS
toxicology of ionizing radiation26
TOXICOLOGY OF IONIZING RADIATION
  • INTERACTIONS OF IONIZING RADIATION WITH MATTER
    • DIRECTLY IONIZING (CORPUSCULAR)
      • POSITRONS
      • ALPHA PARTICLES
      • BETA PARTICLES
      • CHARGED MESONS
      • ACCELERATOR PARTICLES
      • FISSION FRAGMENTS
toxicology of ionizing radiation27
TOXICOLOGY OF IONIZING RADIATION
  • EFFECTS ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
    • ACUTE RESPONSE
      • SKIN
      • GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM
      • HEMATOPOIETIC SYSTEM
      • CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM SYNDROME
toxicology of ionizing radiation28
TOXICOLOGY OF IONIZING RADIATION
  • EFFECTS ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
    • LOW LEVEL RESPONSE
      • RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS
        • 5 REM (ROENTGEN EQUIVALENT MAN)
general toxicology of pesticides
GENERAL TOXICOLOGY OF PESTICIDES
  • CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON PESTICIDES
  • ORGANOPHOSPHATE & CARBAMATE INSECTICIDES
  • HERBICIDES
  • PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES
general toxicology of pesticides30
GENERAL TOXICOLOGY OF PESTICIDES
  • CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON PESTICIDES
    • LIPID SOLUBLE
    • BIO-ACCUMULATION
    • MANY ARE CARCINOGENIC
      • ALDRIN
      • DIELDRIN
general toxicology of pesticides31
GENERAL TOXICOLOGY OF PESTICIDES
  • ORGANOPHOSPHATE & CARBAMATE INSECTICIDES
    • CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS
      • ATROPINE
      • PRALIDOXIME (2-PAM)
    • DELAYED NEUROPATHY
      • TRI-ORTHO-CRESYL PHOSPHATE (TOCP)
general toxicology of pesticides32
GENERAL TOXICOLOGY OF PESTICIDES
  • HERBICIDES
    • GREATEST TOTAL VOLUME OF PRODUCTION
    • KILL PLANTS OR INHIBIT PLANT GROWTH
      • AMINOTRIAZOLE
      • 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID (2,4-D)
general toxicology of pesticides33
GENERAL TOXICOLOGY OF PESTICIDES
  • PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES
    • NATURAL & SYNTHETIC ANALOGUES
    • POTENTIAL NEUROTOXICANTS
      • FAIRLY LARGE DOSES REQUIRED
    • RELATIVELY SAFE INSECTICIDES
metal toxicity
METAL TOXICITY
  • GENERAL FACTORS INFLUENCING TOXICITY
  • TOXIC ACTION OF SPECIFIC METALS
metal toxicity35
METAL TOXICITY
  • ALKALINE EARTH METALS
    • Na, K, Ca, Fe
  • ESSENTIAL TRACE ELEMENTS
    • Zn, Mg, Cu, Ni, Mn, Co, Cr, I, Me, Se
metal toxicity36
METAL TOXICITY
  • GENERAL FACTORS INFLUENCING TOXICITY
    • MOLECULAR SITE OF ACTION
    • ABSORPTION
    • ORGAN SELECTIVITY
metal toxicity37
METAL TOXICITY
  • GENERAL FACTORS INFLUENCING TOXICITY
    • SOLUBILITY
    • ELECTROCHEMICAL NATURE
    • ABILITY TO FORM STABLE LIGANDS OR CHELATES
metal toxicity38
METAL TOXICITY
  • TOXIC ACTION OF SPECIFIC METALS
    • GROUP IA (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs)
      • ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS
      • EXCESSIVE INTAKE CAN INDUCE TOXICITY
metal toxicity39
METAL TOXICITY
  • TOXIC ACTION OF SPECIFIC METALS
    • GROUP IB (Cu, Ag, Au)
      • BASICALLY NON-TOXIC
metal toxicity40
METAL TOXICITY
  • TOXIC ACTION OF SPECIFIC METALS
    • GROUP IIA (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba)
      • BASICALLY NON-TOXIC
      • BERYLLIUM CAUSES LUNG FIBROSIS
metal toxicity41
METAL TOXICITY
  • TOXIC ACTION OF SPECIFIC METALS
    • GROUP IIB (Zn, Cd, Hg)
      • FORM STRONG COVALENT BONDS - AFFINITY FOR THIOL BONDS
      • MERCURY & CADMIUM HAVE CUMULATIVE EFFECT
metal toxicity42
METAL TOXICITY
  • TOXIC ACTION OF SPECIFIC METALS
    • GROUP IIIA (Al, In, Tl)
      • RARELY CAUSE INTOXICATION DUE TO LIMITED USAGE
      • DAMAGE INVOLVES KIDNEY & LIVER NECROSIS AND SEVERE BRAIN DAMAGE
metal toxicity43
METAL TOXICITY
  • TOXIC ACTION OF SPECIFIC METALS
    • GROUP IIIB (Sc, Y, and LANTHANIDES)
      • LOW SOLUBILITY AND RARITY OF EXPOSURE
      • THORIUM IS AN EXCEPTION DUE TO RADIOACTIVITY
metal toxicity44
METAL TOXICITY
  • TOXIC ACTION OF SPECIFIC METALS
    • GROUP IVA (Ge, Sn, Pb)
      • GERMANIUM & TIN ARE OF LOW SOLUBILITY AND TOXICITY
        • ORGANIC FORMS CAUSE NEUROTOXICITY
      • LEAD - INORGANIC & ORGANIC FORMS HIGHLY TOXIC
metal toxicity45
METAL TOXICITY
  • TOXIC ACTION OF SPECIFIC METALS
    • GROUP IVB (Ti, Zr, Hf)
      • LOW SOLUBILITY AND TOXICITY
      • ZIRCONIUM PRODUCES HYPER-SENSITIVITY IN SKIN & LUNG
        • DEODORANTS
        • HAIR SPRAYS
metal toxicity46
METAL TOXICITY
  • TOXIC ACTION OF SPECIFIC METALS
    • GROUP V (ARSENIC [As])
      • EXPOSURE MAINLY IN MANUFACTURING
        • WEED KILLERS
        • WOOD PERSERVATIVES
        • INSECTICIDES
metal toxicity47
METAL TOXICITY
  • TOXIC ACTION OF SPECIFIC METALS
    • GROUP V (ARSENIC [As])
      • As2O5 BROKEN DOWN TO As2O3 (MORE TOXIC FORM)
      • PROGRESSIVE NEUROPATHY, ANEMIA AND ULCERATION OF NASAL SEPTUM
      • CANCER OF SKIN, LUNG AND UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT
clinical toxicology
CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

TEMPERATURE

INCREASEDDECREASED

AMPHETAMINES ALCOHOLS

COCAINE BARBITURATES

BELLADONNA ALKALOIDS CLONIDINE

FLUOROACETATE GLUTETHIMIDE

HEXACHLOROBENZENE HALOPERIDOL

SALICYLATES PHENOTHIAZINES

TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS

clinical toxicology50
CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

PULSE

BRADYCARDIAARRHYTHMIAS

ALCOHOLS ARSENIC

CARBAMATES CAFFEINE

ORGANOPHOSPHATES SOLVENTS

clinical toxicology51
CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

RESPIRATORY RATE

INCREASED DECREASED

CARBON MONOXIDE ALCOHOLS

CYANIDE CO

FLUOROACETATE CYANIDE

HEXACHLOROBENZENE PHENOTHIAZINES

METHANOL

NITRITES

clinical toxicology52
CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

BLOOD PRESSURE

INCREASED DECREASED

AMPHETAMINES BARBITURATES

BELLADONNA ALKALOIDS CYANIDE

COCAINE IRON

PHENCYCLIDINE NITRITES

clinical toxicology53
CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

SKIN

DRY MOIST

ANTIHISTAMINES ALCOHOLS

BELLADONNA ALKALOIDS ARSENIC

GLUTETHIMIDE CARBAMATES MERCURY

ORGANOPHOSPHATES

THALLIUM

clinical toxicology54
CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

SKIN COLOR

FLUSHED CYANOTIC

ALCOHOLS ANILINE DYES

BORIC ACID CO

CARBON MONOXIDE CYANIDE

MSG NITRITES

NITRITES

clinical toxicology55
CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

SKIN COLOR

JAUNDICED

ANILINE DYES

ARSENIC

ARSINE GAS

CARBON TETRACHLORIDE

IRON

PHOSPHORUS

clinical toxicology56
CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

ODORS

ACETONE: ACETONE, ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS

AROMATIC: HYDROCARBONS

BITTER ALMONDS: CYANIDE

GARLIC:ARSENIC, DMSO, ORGANOPHOSPHATES, PHOSPHATES, TELLURIUM, THALLIUM

PEARS: CHLORAL HYDRATE

ROTTEN EGGS: HYDROGEN SULFIDE

SHOE POLISH: NITROBENZENE

VIOLETS: TURPENTINE

WINTERGREEN: METHYLSALICYLATE

clinical toxicology57
CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

VOMITING PAIN

ACIDS ARSENIC

ALKALI IRON

ARSENIC BLACK WIDOW

CAMPHOR

IRON

FLUORIDE

clinical toxicology58
CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

CONVULSIONS COMA

CAMPHOR ALCOHOL

CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS CARBAMATES

LEAD CO

NICOTINE CYANIDE

ORGANOPHOSPHATES HYDROCARBONS

PHENOTHIAZINES H2S

LEAD

ORGANOPHOSPHATES

clinical toxicology59
CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

ATAXIAPARALYSIS

ALCOHOLS CARBAMATES

HYDROCARBONS THALLIUM

PHENYTOIN ORGANOPHOSPHATES

clinical toxicology60
CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

ANTIDOTES

  • COMPETITIVE ANTAGONIST
    • OXYGEN FOR CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING
  • NONCOMPETITIVE ANTAGONIST
    • ATROPINE FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING
clinical toxicology61
CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

ANTIDOTES

  • CHEMICAL NEUTRALIZATION
    • SODIUM THIOSULFATE FOR CYANIDE POISONING
  • METABOLIC INHIBITION
    • ETHANOL FOR METHANOL POISONING
clinical toxicology62
CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

ANTIDOTES

  • OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS
    • METHYLENE BLUE FOR METHEMOHEMOGLOBINEMIA (CYANIDE)
  • CHELATING AGENTS
    • CALCIUM EDTA FOR LEAD OR ZINC POISONING
    • DIMERCAPROL (BAL) FOR ARSENIC POISONING