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Gangs. Gangs are not a new phenomenon in the US. For example: Philadelphia was trying to devise a way to deal with roaming youth disrupting the city in 1791. New York City acknowledged gang problems as early as 1825. Ethnicities, among others, associated with gangs in US History:

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    1. Gangs Gangs are not a new phenomenon in the US. For example: • Philadelphia was trying to devise a way to deal with roaming youth disrupting the city in 1791. • New York City acknowledged gang problems as early as 1825. • Ethnicities, among others, associated with gangs in US History: Irish Jewish Italian African-American Chinese Russian Mexican-American Puerto Ricans Vietnamese Haitian • There appears to have been an increase in gang involvement in the 1980s, and a subsequent decline in the 1990s.

    2. Gangs It is generally agreed that gang activity and membership increased through much of the late ‘80s and early ‘90s. However, numbers started declining in the late ‘90s • 2002 21,500 gangs and 731,500 gang members • 1998 28,700 gangs and 780,000 gang members • 1996 31,000 gangs and 846,000 gang members There are still methodological concerns about how we count.

    3. Structural Changes in the 1980s may have fostered increases in gangs: Kids are most impoverished group, and poverty had risen again. Economic restructuring occurred. Increases in low-wage, low-benefits jobs More women with kids entering labor force Cuts in assistance to the poor Disinvestment in larger cities Racism and denial of inclusion in the economic system continued in poor urban neighborhoods, while upwardly mobile minorities left minority neighborhoods Gangs

    4. Structural Changes in the 1980s may have fostered increases in gangs: Kids are most impoverished group, and poverty had risen again. Economic restructuring occurred. Increases in low-wage, low-benefits jobs More women with kids entering labor force Cuts in assistance to the poor Disinvestment in larger cities Racism and denial of inclusion in the economic system continued in poor urban neighborhoods, while upwardly mobile minorities left minority neighborhoods Higher rates of single-parent families—less supervision and attachment. Smaller families. Lone children seek friends. More protection with peers. More gang involvement. Volatile drug markets created economic opportunities for youths and gangs. Crackdowns on youth behaviors. We tend to tighten our bonds in times of trouble. Hatfields vs. McCoys Normalization of gangs in youth culture. Gangs

    5. Gangs • Normalization

    6. Gangs Social Structure of Gangs: • Members are typically young teenage males of similar ethnic or racial backgrounds (usually from “broken homes” in the inner-cities).

    7. Gangs Social Structure of Gangs: • Members are typically young teenage males of similar ethnic or racial backgrounds (usually from “broken homes” in the inner-cities). • Loyalty and adherence to a strict gang code (i.e., the gang is more important than anything, don’t squeal) is expected.

    8. Gangs Social Structure of Gangs: • Members are typically young teenage males of similar ethnic or racial backgrounds (usually from “broken homes” in the inner-cities). • Loyalty and adherence to a strict gang code (i.e., the gang is more important than anything, don’t squeal) is expected. • Cohesiveness among members is typically loose, but increases as recognition from society increases.

    9. Gangs Social Structure of Gangs: • Members are typically young teenage males of similar ethnic or racial backgrounds (usually from “broken homes” in the inner-cities). • Loyalty and adherence to a strict gang code (i.e., the gang is more important than anything, don’t squeal) is expected. • Cohesiveness among members is typically loose, but increases as recognition from society increases. • Loyalty and camaraderie are solidified by participation in group activities that are often antisocial, illegal, violent, and criminal.

    10. Gangs Social Structure of Gangs: • Members are typically young teenage males of similar ethnic or racial backgrounds (usually from “broken homes” in the inner-cities). • Loyalty and adherence to a strict gang code (i.e., the gang is more important than anything, don’t squeal) is expected. • Cohesiveness among members is typically loose, but increases as recognition from society increases. • Loyalty and camaraderie are solidified by participation in group activities that are often antisocial, illegal, violent, and criminal. • Goals, roles, and responsibilities are loose, but some have these unspoken, but understood.

    11. Gangs Social Structure of Gangs: • Members are typically young teenage males of similar ethnic or racial backgrounds (usually from “broken homes” in the inner-cities). • Loyalty and adherence to a strict gang code (i.e., the gang is more important than anything, don’t squeal) is expected. • Cohesiveness among members is typically loose, but increases as recognition from society increases. • Loyalty and camaraderie are solidified by participation in group activities that are often antisocial, illegal, violent, and criminal. • Goals, roles, and responsibilities are loose, but some have these unspoken, but understood. • There is an established hierarchy.

    12. Gangs Social Structure of Gangs: • Members are typically young teenage males of similar ethnic or racial backgrounds (usually from “broken homes” in the inner-cities). • Loyalty and adherence to a strict gang code (i.e., the gang is more important than anything, don’t squeal) is expected. • Cohesiveness among members is typically loose, but increases as recognition from society increases. • Loyalty and camaraderie are solidified by participation in group activities that are often antisocial, illegal, violent, and criminal. • Goals, roles, and responsibilities are loose, but some have these unspoken, but understood. • There is an established hierarchy. • Identification with a local territory (often referred to as turf) is commonplace in the neighborhood as well as on school campuses.

    13. Gangs Social Structure of Gangs: • Members are typically young teenage males of similar ethnic or racial backgrounds (usually from “broken homes” in the inner-cities). • Loyalty and adherence to a strict gang code (i.e., the gang is more important than anything, don’t squeal) is expected. • Cohesiveness among members is typically loose, but increases as recognition from society increases. • Loyalty and camaraderie are solidified by participation in group activities that are often antisocial, illegal, violent, and criminal. • Goals, roles, and responsibilities are loose, but some have these unspoken, but understood. • There is an established hierarchy. • Identification with a local territory (often referred to as turf) is commonplace in the neighborhood as well as on school campuses. • Recruitment is an ongoing process, especially at schools.

    14. Gangs How were gangs transformed in the late 1980s? • Younger active members (some as young as eight- or nine-years-old)

    15. Gangs How were gangs transformed in the late 1980s? • Younger active members (some as young as eight- or nine-years-old) • Evidence of ethnic and racial crossover in multiethnic neighborhoods

    16. Gangs How were gangs transformed in the late 1980s? • Younger active members (some as young as eight- or nine-years-old) • Evidence of ethnic and racial crossover in multiethnic neighborhoods • Growth in female gangs

    17. Gangs How were gangs transformed in the late 1980s? • Younger active members (some as young as eight- or nine-years-old) • Evidence of ethnic and racial crossover in multiethnic neighborhoods • Growth in female gangs • Established cliques or sets in smaller cities and suburban communities

    18. Gangs How were gangs transformed in the late 1980s? • Younger active members (some as young as eight- or nine-years-old) • Evidence of ethnic and racial crossover in multiethnic neighborhoods • Growth in female gangs • Established cliques or sets in smaller cities and suburban communities • Acquisition of large sums of money from illegal drug markets and prostitution for some gangs

    19. Gangs How were gangs transformed in the late 1980s? • Younger active members (some as young as eight- or nine-years-old) • Evidence of ethnic and racial crossover in multiethnic neighborhoods • Growth in female gangs • Established cliques or sets in smaller cities and suburban communities • Acquisition of large sums of money from illegal drug markets and prostitution for some gangs • Frequent use of drugs and alcohol

    20. Gangs How were gangs transformed in the late 1980s? • Younger active members (some as young as eight- or nine-years-old) • Evidence of ethnic and racial crossover in multiethnic neighborhoods • Growth in female gangs • Established cliques or sets in smaller cities and suburban communities • Acquisition of large sums of money from illegal drug markets and prostitution for some gangs • Frequent use of drugs and alcohol • More violence

    21. Gangs How were gangs transformed in the late 1980s? • Younger active members (some as young as eight- or nine-years-old) • Evidence of ethnic and racial crossover in multiethnic neighborhoods • Growth in female gangs • Established cliques or sets in smaller cities and suburban communities • Acquisition of large sums of money from illegal drug markets and prostitution for some gangs • Frequent use of drugs and alcohol • More violence • Use of sophisticated communications devices and automatic weapons

    22. Gangs How were gangs transformed in the late 1980s? • Younger active members (some as young as eight- or nine-years-old) • Evidence of ethnic and racial crossover in multiethnic neighborhoods • Growth in female gangs • Established cliques or sets in smaller cities and suburban communities • Acquisition of large sums of money from illegal drug markets and prostitution for some gangs • Frequent use of drugs and alcohol • More violence • Use of sophisticated communications devices and automatic weapons • Employment of guerrilla warfare-like tactics

    23. According to Research, Reasons for Gang Involvement are: A search for love, structure and discipline A sense of belonging and commitment The need for recognition and power Companionship, training, excitement and activities Gangs

    24. According to Research, Reasons for Gang Involvement are: A search for love, structure and discipline A sense of belonging and commitment The need for recognition and power Companionship, training, excitement and activities A sense of self worth and status A place of acceptance To make money The need for physical Safety and protection A family/neighborhood tradition Gangs

    25. Gangs According to Research, Reasons for Gang Involvement are: To sum it up, people are gregarious and join groups for psychological security, resource security and for emotionally satisfying bonds. These reasons for joining gangs sound like reasons people join any other organization.

    26. Gangs are like: Fraternities Lodges How? Sports Organizations Political Groups Gangs Gangs are not “Abnormal”

    27. Gangs • Colors or Logos

    28. Gangs • Initiation

    29. Gangs • Secret Societies

    30. Gangs • Conformity

    31. Gangs • Homogeneity

    32. Gangs • Hierarchy

    33. Gangs • Marking Turf

    34. Gangs • Competition

    35. Gangs • Recruitment

    36. Gangs are like: Fraternities Lodges Sports Organizations Political Groups How? Colors or logos Initiations Secret Society Demand for Conformity and Loyalty Homogeneity of Membership Hierarchy Marking Territory with Symbols or Objects Competition with other organizations Recruitment Gangs Gangs are not “Abnormal”

    37. Gangs Gang Prevention Strategies: • More satisfying families and communities. If the family or significant others are the source of love, guidance, and protection that youths seek, they are not forced to search for these basic needs from a gang.

    38. Gangs Gang Prevention Strategies: • More satisfying families and communities. If the family or significant others are the source of love, guidance, and protection that youths seek, they are not forced to search for these basic needs from a gang. • Educational attachment. Young people who successfully participate in and complete education have greater opportunities to participate as rewarded and contributing adults.

    39. Gangs Gang Prevention Strategies: • Educational attachment. Young people who successfully participate in and complete education have greater opportunities to participate as rewarded and contributing adults. • Graffiti removal. Removal reduces the chance that crimes will be committed. Since gangs use graffiti to mark their turf, advertise themselves, and claim credit for a crime, quick removal is essential.

    40. Gangs Gang Prevention Strategies: • Graffiti removal. Removal reduces the chance that crimes will be committed. Since gangs use graffiti to mark their turf, advertise themselves, and claim credit for a crime, quick removal is essential. • Recreational programs. Can get youths involved in activities and belonging that would serve the same kind of function that gangs serve.

    41. Gangs Gang Prevention Strategies: • Recreational programs. Can get youths involved in activities and belonging that would serve the same kind of function that gangs serve. • Conflict resolution programs. Can teach potential gangsters how to better deal with conflicts and help reduce gang intimidation tactics.

    42. Gangs Gang Prevention Strategies: • Conflict resolution programs. Can teach potential gangsters how to better deal with conflicts and help reduce gang intimidation tactics. • Fight high-density poverty and hopelessness. Combating conditions of urban slums removes the structural conditions conducive to gangs. “The chief problem in any community cursed with crime is not the punishment of the criminals, but the preventing of the young from being trained to crime.” — WEB Dubois