A Review of Building Code Issues Danvers Explosion Uxbridge Mill Fire Department of Public Safety
Report Recommendations There should be outreach to real estate agents, developers and potential developers interested in the revitalization of former mill buildings. This outreach should stress the importance of a Building Code “Article 34 Review” prior to any construction or change in use. This outreach should include community development and planning agencies, and interagency communication. Department of Fire Services
Q: What might have prevented the events of Uxbridge and Danvers?A: Compliance to Chapter 34: “Existing Buildings…” Let’s review the authority 780 CMR Chapter 34 provides the Building Official?
Q: How is Chapter 34 Invoked?A: Through 780 CMR 102.5: Applicability to Existing Buildings • Existing Buildings or parts or portions thereof which are proposed to be enlarged, altered, repaired or changed in use or occupancy shall comply with the provisions of 780 CMR 34 All these Actions Require a Building Permit!
780 CMR Chapter 34 Intent • To Maintain or Improve the Performance of Existing Buildings. • To Analyze Existing Buildings to Establish the “baseline” Level of Safety. • To Tie Level of Compliance to Changes in Use or Hazard to Occupants Where 34 does require the equivalent of new construction, compliance alternatives may be utilized to achieve desired code effect
Additions • The addition must comply with the code for new construction. • Area of addition plus existing must meet height and area requirements for new construction as required by 780 CMR 5. • No work is required in the existing building unless impacted by the proposed work.
AdditionsHeight and Area Compliance • Construction of a FIRE WALL Separates a building into multiple buildings. • Each building can be treated as a separate building and each building can be constructed to height and area requirements.
TYPES 1 AND 2 CONSTRUCTION 603.1 General: Buildings and structures of Types l and 2 construction are those in which the walls, partitions, structure elements, floors, ceilings, roofs and exits are constructed of approved noncombustible materials. Each structure element shall not be less than the required fireresistance rating specified in Table 602, except as otherwise specifically provided for in 780 CMR. Buildings of Types l and 2 construction shall be further classified as Type 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B or 2C. Fireretardant-treated wood shall only be used as specified in Table 602 and 780 CMR 2310.0. Department of Fire Services
TYPE 3 CONSTRUCTION 604.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 3 construction are those in which: the exterior walls are constructed of masonry or other approved noncombustible materials; the interior structure elements, loadbearing walls, partitions, floors and roofs are constructed of any approved materials. Each structure element shall have not less than the required fireresistance rating specified in Table 602, except as otherwise specifically provided for in 780 CMR. Buildings of Type 3 construction shall be further classified as Type 3A or 3B. Department of Fire Services
TYPE 4 CONSTRUCTION 605.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 4 construction are those in which the exterior walls are constructed of approved noncombustible materials and the interior structural members are of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces or the loadbearing walls, partitions, floors and roofs are constructed of any noncombustible materials permitted by 780 CMR. Each structure element shall have not less than the required fireresistance rating specified in Table 602. The elements of Type 4 construction shall comply with the provisions of 780 CMR 2304.0. Department of Fire Services
TYPE 5 CONSTRUCTION 606.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 5 construction are those in which the exterior walls, loadbearing walls, partitions floors and roofs are constructed of any approved materials. Each structure element shall have not less than the required fireresistance rating specified in Table 602. Buildings of Type 5 construction shall be further classified as Type 5A or 5B. Department of Fire Services
AdditionsHeight and Area Compliance Allowable Area A
Construction Type Mandated 602.1 General: All buildings and structures erected or to be erected, altered or extended in height or area shall be classified in one of the five construction types 602.2 False designation: A building shall not be designated as a given type of construction unless it conforms to the minimum requirements for that type. Department of Fire Services
MUST MEET MINIMUMS 602.3 Minimum requirements: Where a type of construction is used that is superior to the minimum herein required for any specified use, height and area of the building, nothing in 780 CMR shall be construed to require full compliance with the specifications for the higher type; but the designated construction classification of the building shall be that of the lesser type, unless all of the requirements for the higher type are fulfilled. Department of Fire Services
HEIGHT & AREA LIMITATIONS Department of Fire Services
Table 602 FIRE RESISTANCE RATINGS OF STRUCTURE ELEMENTS Type of construction 780 CMR 602.0 1A 1B 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 4 5A 5B 1 Exterior walls 4 3 2 1 0 2 2 2 1 0 2 Fire walls and party walls 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Not less than the fireresistance rating required by Table 707.1 Department of Fire Services
MIXED USE GROUPS 780 CMR 313.0 MIXED USE GROUPS 313.1 Two or more use groups: Where a building is occupied by two or more occupancies not included in the same use group, the building or portion thereof shall comply with 780 CMR 313.1.1, 313.1.2 or 313.1.3 or with combinations of 780 CMR 313.1.1, 313.1.2 and 313.1.3, except that occupancies in Use Group H shall be separated from Department of Fire Services
780 CMR 3406Compliance Alternatives Definition: An alternative life safety construction feature which meets or exceeds the requirements or intent of a specific provision of 780 CMR. Can be used only when: A provision of Chapter 34 requires compliance with the code for new construction. Compliance is impractical due to construction or regulatory constraints
Compliance Alternatives Compliance Alternatives may be accepted by the building official where compliance with new code is impractical due to construction difficulties or regulatory constraints, however…. A Building Official is authorized to accept or reject compliance alternatives
Hazard Index • Numerical Value between 1 and 8 assigned to specific use groups to determine the applicable provisions of Chapter 34. • Hazard Indices are provided in Table 3403 and Appendix F
ApplicabilityAlterations/Change in Use • Establish Hazard Index of New Use • Apply modifier for construction type. • Establish Hazard Index of Existing Use • Subtract existing Hazard Index from Modified Proposed Hazard Index. • Use Algebraic Difference to determine applicable provisions of Chapter 34.
3402 - Specific Provisions Applicable to All Buildings • For any building subject to Construction Control - AS A CONDITION OF THE ISSUANCE OF THE BUILDING PERMIT. • Existing Building must be investigated and evaluated.
3402 - Specific Provisions Applicable to All Buildings 3402.1.1 Investigation and Evaluation • Any proposed work subject to Section 116 • A condition of Building Permit Issuance • A written Report (per 3402.1.2) w/compliance alternatives identified. • Non-conforming items identified
3402 - Specific Provisions Applicable to All Buildings • Evaluation must be in sufficient detail to ascertain the effects of the proposed work (if any) on; • structural • egress • fire protection • energy conservation • light and ventilation
3402 - Specific Provisions Applicable to All Buildings • Evaluation must extend to the space in question or where applicable. • The entire building or portions thereof which are affected by the work.
3402 - Specific Provisions Applicable to All Buildings • See Appendix F for procedures for evaluation of existing buildings • See “Codeword” - October 1999 Article
TABLE F-1Use of Structure Hazard Index No. HAZARD INDEX AND USE GROUP CLASSIFICATION Wholesale business, including accessory storage other than flammable liquids, gases and explosives, in roofed structures depending on nature of materials 3 or 1 S-1 or S-2 Textiles Manufacture, including knit & yard goods, thread or cordage, spinning, weaving, dyeing & printing, shoddy manufacture 3 F-1 Department of Fire Services
Change in Hazard Index of 2 or more Compliance with the code for new construction (except seismic)
CHAPTER 34 REPORT • Evaluation report must be in sufficient detail to ascertain the effects of the proposed work on: • structural • egress • fire protection • including firersistance ratings and separations • energy conservation • light and ventilation Department of Fire Services