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Chapter 10 Internet and New Information Technology Infrastructure IT Infrastructure Enterprise Networking An arrangement of the organization’s hardware, software, network and data resources Puts power on the desktop computer

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Chapter 10

Internet

and

New Information Technology Infrastructure


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IT Infrastructure

  • Enterprise Networking

    • An arrangement of the organization’s hardware, software, network and data resources

    • Puts power on the desktop computer

    • In large companies, infrastructure is composed of multiple networks

    • High-capacity backbone network connects many LANs

    • Internetworking - Linking separate networks, each of which retains its identity

Information Systems for Management


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Standards and Connectivity

  • Connectivity

    • A measure of how well computers and computer-based devices communicate and share information without human intervention

  • Open Systems

    • Software that operates on different hardware

    • Using IT standards in developing application software and communication network software

Information Systems for Management


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Models of Connectivity

  • TCP/IP (Transmission control protocol/internet protocol)

    • Used in the Internet, allows different types of computers to communicate

  • OSI (Open Systems Interconnection)

    • Seven layers, international reference model

Information Systems for Management


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Application

HTTP

SMTP

POP3

FTP

Telnet

Presentation

Session

Transport

TCP

UDP

Network

IP

Datalink

NIC Driver

Physical

OSI and TCP/IP Networks

Each software layer performs certain job and passes output to next layer.

In Internet, same jobs performed by fewer layers.

Information Systems for Management


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Internet Capabilities

  • E-mail

    • Person-to-person messaging; document sharing

  • Usenet Newsgroups

    • Discussion groups using electronic bulletin boards

  • List Servers

    • Discussion groups using email list servers

  • Chat Rooms

    • Interactive conversations

    • Instant messaging

Information Systems for Management


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Internet Capabilities

  • Telnet

    • Remotely work on one computer while logged on to another

  • FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

    • Transfer of files from computer to computer

  • World Wide Web

    • Display multimedia documents, retrieve information using hyperlinks (URLs – see below)

Information Systems for Management


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Root

.net .com .edu .org .ca

umanitoba

Domains

cc

spica

(Web server for university

Web site and course sites)

Addresses on Internet

  • Each computer has

    • IPAddress (“Internet address”) - unique combination of

      4 numbers (e.g. 130.179.16.50)

    • Corresponding Domain Name System label

      (e.g., www.umanitoba.ca or spica.cc.umanitoba.ca for 130.179.16.50)

    • DNS = method of addressing using idea of inverted tree

Information Systems for Management


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Internet Service Providers (ISP)

  • A commercial organization with a permanent connection to the Internet that sells temporary connections to subscribers

  • High speed – always on

    • Shaw – Cable Modem

    • MTS – DSL

  • Dial-up

    • AOL

    • Sympatico

Information Systems for Management


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Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

  • URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

    • Naming method used with Web; extends DNS by specifying directories and file names – hypertext links (example: home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~btravica/9200/chapter10.ppt )

  • HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)

    • The communications standard used to transfer pages on the Web

    • Defines how messages are formatted and transmitted

    • So “http://...” says to the Web browser – “Use http to transfer what is at that URL and show it in my Web browser”.

Information Systems for Management


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Intranets & Extranets

  • Intranet (written with lowers case “i” vs. “I” in Internet)

    • Private network using Internet technology

    • Protected from outsiders by firewalls

      • Hardware and/or software placed between intranet and external networks to prevent outsiders from invading internal networks

  • Extranet

    • Intranets that allow authorized access by external stakeholders (e.g., suppliers, customers)

Information Systems for Management


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Wireless Web

  • Wireless Web Standards

    • Allow Web content to be reformatted to fit small screens (cell phone)

  • WAP (wireless application protocol)

    • Uses Wireless Markup Language (WML)

    • Optimized for tiny displays (e.g., cell phones)

  • I-mode

    • Developed in Japan, being introduced in Europe and NA

    • Uses compact HTML (easier to integrate than WML)

  • Information Systems for Management


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    Organizational Benefits of Internet/Web

    • Triggered E-Commerce - global reach of business operations

    • Reducing communication and paper costs

      • Email, Internet telephony (Voice over IP), Virtual private network (VPN)

    • Online access to organizational information and knowledge (intranets)

    • Enhance coordination and collaboration (communication and group support systems in intranets, extranets and over Internet)

    • Lower transaction costs (buying/selling electronically)

    • Enhance relationships with suppliers and customers

    Information Systems for Management


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    Technologies for B2C E-Commerce

    • For developing Web Storefronts:

      • Product catalogues, electronic shopping carts, customer profiles, electronic payment

    • For Managing Web Storefronts:

      • Display product availability

      • Make shipping arrangements & tracking

      • Link to electronic payment systems

      • Connect to back-office systems (e.g., accounting)

      • Support security (user authentication)

    Information Systems for Management


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    Technologies for B2C E-Commerce

    • For managing customer relationships:

      • Collect and analyze data on behaviour of online customers

        • Registration forms

        • Search terms customers use

        • Clickstream tracking (screen items clicked on – links, icons, moving paths)

        • Collaborative filtering (compare customer tracking data with data from customers with similar profiles, predict preferences, and try cross selling)

    Information Systems for Management