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Chapter 10 Internet and New Information Technology Infrastructure

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  1. Chapter 10 Internet and New Information Technology Infrastructure

  2. IT Infrastructure • Enterprise Networking • An arrangement of the organization’s hardware, software, network and data resources • Puts power on the desktop computer • In large companies, infrastructure is composed of multiple networks • High-capacity backbone network connects many LANs • Internetworking - Linking separate networks, each of which retains its identity Information Systems for Management

  3. Standards and Connectivity • Connectivity • A measure of how well computers and computer-based devices communicate and share information without human intervention • Open Systems • Software that operates on different hardware • Using IT standards in developing application software and communication network software Information Systems for Management

  4. Models of Connectivity • TCP/IP (Transmission control protocol/internet protocol) • Used in the Internet, allows different types of computers to communicate • OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) • Seven layers, international reference model Information Systems for Management

  5. Application HTTP SMTP POP3 FTP Telnet Presentation Session Transport TCP UDP Network IP Datalink NIC Driver Physical OSI and TCP/IP Networks Each software layer performs certain job and passes output to next layer. In Internet, same jobs performed by fewer layers. Information Systems for Management

  6. Internet Capabilities • E-mail • Person-to-person messaging; document sharing • Usenet Newsgroups • Discussion groups using electronic bulletin boards • List Servers • Discussion groups using email list servers • Chat Rooms • Interactive conversations • Instant messaging Information Systems for Management

  7. Internet Capabilities • Telnet • Remotely work on one computer while logged on to another • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • Transfer of files from computer to computer • World Wide Web • Display multimedia documents, retrieve information using hyperlinks (URLs – see below) Information Systems for Management

  8. Root .net .com .edu .org .ca umanitoba Domains cc spica (Web server for university Web site and course sites) Addresses on Internet • Each computer has • IPAddress (“Internet address”) - unique combination of 4 numbers (e.g. 130.179.16.50) • Corresponding Domain Name System label (e.g., www.umanitoba.ca or spica.cc.umanitoba.ca for 130.179.16.50) • DNS = method of addressing using idea of inverted tree Information Systems for Management

  9. Internet Service Providers (ISP) • A commercial organization with a permanent connection to the Internet that sells temporary connections to subscribers • High speed – always on • Shaw – Cable Modem • MTS – DSL • Dial-up • AOL • Sympatico Information Systems for Management

  10. Uniform Resource Locator (URL) • URL (Uniform Resource Locator) • Naming method used with Web; extends DNS by specifying directories and file names – hypertext links (example: home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~btravica/9200/chapter10.ppt ) • HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) • The communications standard used to transfer pages on the Web • Defines how messages are formatted and transmitted • So “http://...” says to the Web browser – “Use http to transfer what is at that URL and show it in my Web browser”. Information Systems for Management

  11. Intranets & Extranets • Intranet (written with lowers case “i” vs. “I” in Internet) • Private network using Internet technology • Protected from outsiders by firewalls • Hardware and/or software placed between intranet and external networks to prevent outsiders from invading internal networks • Extranet • Intranets that allow authorized access by external stakeholders (e.g., suppliers, customers) Information Systems for Management

  12. Wireless Web • Wireless Web Standards • Allow Web content to be reformatted to fit small screens (cell phone) • WAP (wireless application protocol) • Uses Wireless Markup Language (WML) • Optimized for tiny displays (e.g., cell phones) • I-mode • Developed in Japan, being introduced in Europe and NA • Uses compact HTML (easier to integrate than WML) Information Systems for Management

  13. Organizational Benefits of Internet/Web • Triggered E-Commerce - global reach of business operations • Reducing communication and paper costs • Email, Internet telephony (Voice over IP), Virtual private network (VPN) • Online access to organizational information and knowledge (intranets) • Enhance coordination and collaboration (communication and group support systems in intranets, extranets and over Internet) • Lower transaction costs (buying/selling electronically) • Enhance relationships with suppliers and customers Information Systems for Management

  14. Technologies for B2C E-Commerce • For developing Web Storefronts: • Product catalogues, electronic shopping carts, customer profiles, electronic payment • For Managing Web Storefronts: • Display product availability • Make shipping arrangements & tracking • Link to electronic payment systems • Connect to back-office systems (e.g., accounting) • Support security (user authentication) Information Systems for Management

  15. Technologies for B2C E-Commerce • For managing customer relationships: • Collect and analyze data on behaviour of online customers • Registration forms • Search terms customers use • Clickstream tracking (screen items clicked on – links, icons, moving paths) • Collaborative filtering (compare customer tracking data with data from customers with similar profiles, predict preferences, and try cross selling) Information Systems for Management