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Bacteria! (Growing on a Kitchen Sponge). Cutting Board (Eubacteria). Diversity of Life. Bacterial Diversity. Description : procaryotes, absorbers, wet conditions, animal decomposers, cell walls, unicellular

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Bacteria! (Growing on a Kitchen Sponge)


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    1. Bacteria!(Growing on a Kitchen Sponge)

    2. Cutting Board (Eubacteria)

    3. Diversity of Life

    4. Bacterial Diversity Description: procaryotes, absorbers, wet conditions, animal decomposers, cell walls, unicellular Types: eubacteria, archaeabacteria, Gram-negative, Gram-positive, acid fast, cyanobacteria Morphology: cocci, bacilli, spirals, etc. Nutrient Type: chemoheterotrophs, photoheterotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoautotrophs (also O2 needs, etc.) Durable state: endospores (some) Diseases: tetanus, botulism, gonorrhea, chlamydia, tuberculosis, etc., etc., etc.

    5. Bacterial Diversity Description: procaryotes, absorbers, wet conditions, animal decomposers, cell walls, unicellular Types: eubacteria, archaeabacteria, Gram-negative, Gram-positive, acid fast, cyanobacteria Morphology: cocci, bacilli, spirals, etc. Nutrient Type: chemoheterotrophs, photoheterotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoautotrophs (also O2 needs, etc.) Durable state: endospores (some) Diseases: tetanus, botulism, gonorrhea, chlamydia, tuberculosis, etc., etc., etc.

    6. Bacteria Morphological Diversity From http://ag.arizona.edu/plp/courses/plp329/micdivintro.ppt

    7. Bacterial Diversity Description: procaryotes, absorbers, wet conditions, animal decomposers, cell walls, unicellular Types: eubacteria, archaeabacteria, Gram-negative, Gram-positive, acid fast, cyanobacteria Morphology: cocci, bacilli, spirals, etc. Nutrient Type: chemoheterotrophs, photoheterotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoautotrophs (also O2 needs, etc.) Durable state: endospores (some) Diseases: tetanus, botulism, gonorrhea, chlamydia, tuberculosis, etc., etc., etc.

    8. Bacterial Phylogeny

    9. Cyanobacteria

    10. Bacterial Phylogeny

    11. Archaebacteria

    12. Thermophiles (Archaeabacteria)

    13. Bacterial Diversity Description: procaryotes, absorbers, wet conditions, animal decomposers, cell walls,unicellular Types: eubacteria, archaeabacteria, Gram-negative, Gram-positive, acid fast, cyanobacteria Morphology: cocci, bacilli, spirals, etc. Nutrient Type: chemoheterotrophs, photoheterotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoautotrophs (also O2 needs, etc.) Durable state:endospores (some) Diseases: tetanus, botulism, gonorrhea, chlamydia, tuberculosis, etc., etc., etc.

    14. Bacterial Anatomy (Overview)

    15. Bacterial Motility

    16. Nucleoid

    17. Microbial Growth “Because individual cells grow larger only to divide into new individuals, microbial growth is defined not in terms of cell size but as the increase in the number of cells, which occurs by cell division."

    18. Note nascent septum forming Binary Fission

    19. Endospores

    20. Bacterial Diversity Description: procaryotes, absorbers, wet conditions, animal decomposers, cell walls, unicellular Types: eubacteria, archaeabacteria, Gram-negative, Gram-positive, acid fast, cyanobacteria Morphology: cocci, bacilli, spirals, etc. Nutrient Type: chemoheterotrophs, photoheterotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoautotrophs (also O2 needs, etc.) Durable state: endospores (some) Diseases: tetanus, botulism, gonorrhea, chlamydia, tuberculosis, etc., etc., etc.

    21. The Basic Nutritional Needs of Organisms are for Energy and for Carbon Procurement of C & Energy We can distinguish procurement strategies into: • Autotrophic (C) • Heterotrophic (C) • Phototrophic (energy) • Chemotrophic (energy)

    22. Autotrophs “Eat” CO2

    23. Heterotrophs “Eat” Others  (except cyanobacteria + certain archaebacteria, e.g., such as those that eat whale sulfides) (all but photosynthetic most protozoa & algae)

    24. Phototrophs “Eat” Light

    25. Chemotrophs “Eat” Reduced Molecules

    26. Chemotrophs “Eat” Reduced Molecules  (except cyanobacteria + green & purple non-sulfur bacteria) (all but photosynthetic most protozoa & algae)

    27. Nutritional Patterns

    28. Oxygen Requirements

    29. Bacterial Diversity Description: procaryotes, absorbers, wet conditions, animal decomposers, cell walls, unicellular Types: eubacteria, archaeabacteria, Gram-negative, Gram-positive, acid fast, cyanobacteria Morphology: cocci, bacilli, spirals, etc. Nutrient Type: chemoheterotrophs, photoheterotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoautotrophs (also O2 needs, etc.) Durable state: endospores (some) Diseases: tetanus, botulism, gonorrhea, chlamydia, tuberculosis, etc., etc., etc.

    30. Bacteria & Nitrogen Cycling

    31. Bacterial Diversity Description: procaryotes, absorbers, wet conditions, animal decomposers, cell walls, unicellular Types: eubacteria, archaeabacteria, Gram-negative, Gram-positive, acid fast, cyanobacteria Morphology: cocci, bacilli, spirals, etc. Nutrient Type: chemoheterotrophs, photoheterotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoautotrophs (also O2 needs, etc.) Durable state: endospores (some) Diseases: tetanus, botulism, gonorrhea, chlamydia, tuberculosis, etc., etc., etc.

    32. Symbiosis • Symbioses are intimate, relatively long-term interaction between organisms • Typically at least one of the organisms benefits from the relationship • We can classify Symbioses in terms of the degree to which the other organism (e.g., the host) benefits or is harmed: • Commensalism • Mutualism • Parasitism

    33. Bacterial Diseases

    34. Toxins Chemical (often protein) agents that damage host tissue • Endotoxins Lipid A portion of LPS (not protein) that causes host overreaction • Exotoxins Protein toxins, typically produced by Gram-positives as exoenzymes or equivalents But also many Gram-negatives • Neurotoxins, Enterotoxins • Intoxication • Toxoid Toxins

    35. Bacterial Cell Walls

    36. Koch’s Postulates

    37. Koch’s “Molecular” Postulates • Gene or factor should be associated with pathogenic condition or phenotype • Inactivate or alter this gene should lead to measurable decrease in virulence or pathogenicity (e.g., via antibody therapy, chemotherapy, or genetic engineering) • Specifically replace gene should restore virulence Adapted from: http://www.med.umich.edu/microbio/ppt/532_11prevcontrol.ppt

    38. Link to Next Presentation

    39. Acknowledgements http://207.233.44.253/w

    40. Kitchen Sponge (Eubacteria)

    41. Thermophiles A large channel draining from a hot pool, containing carotenoid-rich microorganisms. The temperature of this channel in the foreground is about 60 oC. Layers of white-coloured limestone (forming a rock deposit known as travertine) can also be seen. Note the footprints of buffalo in the foreground. These animals often seek the warmth of thermal areas in the winter months. limestone terraces formed by precipitation from calcium-rich water flowing from a raised hot pool. Pink, green and brown-coloured microorganisms occupy the thermal gradients in the flowing water (60-100oC)

    42. Bacterial Anatomy (Overview)

    43. Bacterial Phylogeny