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  2. Did you know... • World Record – Longest period of time a human has intentionally gone without sleep (no stimulants) • Randy Gardner (1964) 17-years old • 264 Hours (11 days) • Held Press Conference on last day – spoke without slurring • Health was monitored – negative cognitive & behavioral changes were reported • After falling asleep – slept 14 hours, 40 minutes.

  3. Facts • Although some people insist they NEVER dream, research suggests EVERYONE dreams during the night • In sleep labs, people wakened from REM periods report 80-100% were dreaming w/ vivid & colorful images (even bizarre, abnormal things were reported vividly)

  4. Consciousnessrefers to different levels of awareness of one’s thoughts and feelings • Alertness to nonalertness • Not completely aware = altered state • i.e. sleep


  6. SLEEP


  8. There are two (2) major types of sleep 1. REM sleep, a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, a high level of brain activity, a deep relaxation of the muscles and dreaming • This is the time when we will dream. • “Active sleep” • 15 minutes (beginning of night) to 45 minutes (end of night) • Your voluntary muscles are paralyzed.

  9. 2. NREM sleep. This stands for non-rapid eye movement and is the other type of sleep. • Where we spend the majority of our sleep time • Divided into 4 stages (first four) • Decreases in length as nights’ sleep progresses. • “Quiet sleep”


  11. WHAT HAPPENS IF I DON’T GET SLEEP? • It can affect immune system. • It can cause you to hallucinate. • You will have less energy. • Your cognitive performance can be affected.

  12. Texting and sleep • 2010 Research – Average teen sends more than 100 text messages per day. • Major cause of sleep deprivation in teens • Texts may awaken you and decrease sleep • Playing games on your phone before bed can prevent sleep • Study showed that 77.5% of teens that text or surf web at night have trouble falling asleep • Can cause mood, behavior, and cognitive problems during the day including ADHD, anxiety, depression

  13. CIRCADIAN RHYTHM 24-hour biological clock; genetically programmed; regulates physiological responses Disrupting the circadian rhythm causes problems Sleep is regulated by environment/industrial clock, NOT your circadian rhythm POTENTIAL PROBLEMS?

  14. Problems that can result from disrupting the circadian clock • Accidents (body prepared for sleep, trying to stay awake to drive, alertness decreases) • Jet lag • Illness

  15. Your circadian rhythm for body temperature influences your sleep preferences

  16. Treating Circadian Problems • Melatonin - supplements have been proven to help people sleep

  17. Sleep Disorders

  18. Insomnia • Persistent problems falling asleep • Effects 10% of the population • Primary insomnia: Primary insomnia means that a person is having sleep problems that are not directly associated with any other health condition or problem. • Secondary insomnia: Secondary insomnia means that a person is having sleep problems because of something else, such as a health condition (like asthma, depression, arthritis, cancer, or heartburn); pain; medication they are taking; or a substance they are using (like alcohol).

  19. Sleep Disorders

  20. Narcolepsy • Suffer from sleeplessness and may fall asleep at unpredictable or inappropriate times. • Directly into REM sleep • Less than .001 % of population. Click above to see Skeeter the narcoleptic dog.

  21. Sleep Apnea • A person stops breathing during their sleep. • Wake up momentarily, gasps for air, then falls back asleep. • Very common, especially in heavy males. • Can be fatal.

  22. Night Terrors • Wake up screaming and have no idea why. • Not a nightmare. • Most common in children (boys) between ages 2-8.

  23. NIGHTMARES & NIGHT TERRORS Nightmares – unpleasant dreams occur during REM Night terrors – sleep disruptions in stage IV; involve screaming, panic, confusion; often no memory of it SLEEPWALKING Most common in young children – will outgrow it Linked to stress, fatigue, drug use

  24. Somnambulism • Sleep Walking • Most often occurs during the first few hours of sleeping and in stage 4 (deep sleep). • If you have had night terrors, you are more likely to sleep walk when older.

  25. DREAMS Everybody dreams Often incorporate everyday activities into dreams FREUD (Dream interpretation): Dreams have hidden meaning/reveal the unconscious • MANY DREAM THEORIES: • problem-solving theory • mental housecleaning/clean brain • extending waking life

  26. HYPNOSIS state of consciousness resulting from a narrowed focus of attention and characterized by heightened suggestibility USES: • entertainment • pain reduction • quit smoking

  27. MEDITATION The focusing of attention to clear one’s mind and produce relaxation USES: • lower blood pressure, heart rate • benefits vary greatly

  28. DRUGS & CONSCIOUSNESS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS: chemicals that affect the nervous system and result in altered states • Stimulants: elevate mood, increase energy & alertness • caffiene • cocaine • Meth • Depressants: slow down nervous system • alcohol • sleeping pills • Hallucinogens: change persons perception of reality • marijuana • LSD

  29. MARIJUANA & ALCOHOL • Marijuana • the dried leaves and flowers of Indian hemp (cannabis sativa) that produce altered states of consciousness • effects vary from person to person, situation to situation • studies suggest more dangerous to lungs than cigarette • disrupts memory formation • psychological addiction? • Alcohol • can loosen inhibitions • despite stimulating effect is a depressant • Can cause brain and liver damage • underage drinking has actually decreased