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A Framework For Thinking Ethically. Adapted from work done by the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. Professional Development Seminar CHE 395. Outline. Why talk about ethics? What is ethics? Approaches to ethics A framework for ethical decision making Application.

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a framework for thinking ethically

A Framework For Thinking Ethically

Adapted from work done by the

Markkula Center for Applied Ethics

Professional Development Seminar

CHE 395

  • Why talk about ethics?
  • What is ethics?
  • Approaches to ethics
  • A framework for ethical decision making
  • Application
what s the common thread
What’s The Common Thread?
  • Jack Abramoff
  • Dennis Kozlowski
  • Barry Bonds
  • Meg Scott Phipps
  • Jayson Blair
  • Martha Stewart
  • Marion Jones
  • Rosie Ruiz
  • Woo-Suk Hwang
  • Oliver North
  • Bill Clinton
  • Bernie Ebbers
  • Stephen Ambrose
  • Jason Giambi
  • Sandra Baldwin
  • Quincy Troupe
  • George O’Leary
  • Tonya Harding
Time pressure

Financial pressure

To please the boss

To protect the company

Everybody else is doing it

I’m looking out for those who work for me

To be a team player

I have to, just to keep up

No one will ever know

the cheating culture callahan
The Cheating Culture (Callahan)
  • There is too much to gain.
  • There is too much to lose.
  • The watchdogs are asleep.
can you teach ethics
Can You Teach Ethics?
  • Socrates: “Ethics consists of knowing what we ought to do, and such knowledge can be taught.”
stages of moral thought kohlberg
Stages of Moral Thought (Kohlberg)
  • Child – defines right and wrong in terms of what authorities say
  • Adolescent – defines right and wrong in terms of group loyalty (friends, family, gang, nation)
  • Adult – views right and wrong from universal standards of justice, human rights, and human welfare

Educationis what stimulates growth through levels.

codes of ethics
Codes of Ethics
  • AIChE
  • National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE)
what is ethics
What Is Ethics?
  • Ethics is not the same as feelings.
  • Ethics is not religion.
  • Ethics is not following the law.
  • Ethics is not following culturally accepted norms.
  • Ethics is not science.
two fundamental problems
Two Fundamental Problems
  • On what do we base our ethical standards?

2. How do those standards get applied to specific situations we face?

the utilitarian approach
The Utilitarian Approach
  • Focuses on the consequences that actions or policies have on the well-being of all persons directly or indirectly affected by the action or policy.
  • The principle states: "Of any two actions, the most ethical one will produce the greatest balance of benefits over harms."
the rights approach
The Rights Approach
  • Ethical action is the one that best protects and respects the moral rights of those affected.
  • Each person has a fundamental right to be respected and treated as a free and equal rational person capable of making his or her own decisions.
the fairness approach
The Fairness Approach
  • Focuses on how fairly or unfairly our actions distribute benefits and burdens among the members of a group.
  • Fairness requires consistency in the way people are treated.
  • The principle states: "Treat people the same unless there are morally relevant differences between them."
the common good approach
The Common Good Approach
  • Presents a vision of society as a community whose members are joined in a shared pursuit of values and goals they hold in common.
  • The community is comprised of individuals whose own good is inextricably bound to the good of the whole.
  • The principle states: "What is ethical is what advances the common good."
the virtue approach
The Virtue Approach
  • Focuses on attitudes, dispositions, or character traits that enable us to be and to act in ways that develop our human potential.
  • Examples: honesty, courage, faithfulness, trustworthiness, integrity, etc.
  • The principle states: "What is ethical is what develops moral virtues in ourselves and our communities."
problems with these approaches
Problems With These Approaches
  • We may not agree on the same set of human and civil rights, what constitutes the common good, what is good and what is harmful.
  • The different approaches may not answer the question “What is ethical?” in the same way.
how to make an ethical decision
How To Make an Ethical Decision
  • Recognize that decisions have ethical implications
  • Develop a method for exploring the ethical aspects of a decision
  • Discuss with others
recognize an ethical issue
Recognize an Ethical Issue
  • Is there something wrong personally, interpersonally, or socially? Could the conflict, the situation, or the decision be damaging to people or to the community?
  • Does the issue go beyond legal or institutional concerns? What does it do to people, who have dignity, rights, and hopes for a better life together?
get the facts
Get the Facts
  • What are the relevant facts of the case? What facts are unknown?
  • What individuals and groups have an important stake in the outcome? Do some have a greater stake because they have a special need or because we have special obligations to them?
  • What are the options for acting? Have all the relevant persons and groups been consulted? If you showed your list of options to someone you respect, what would that person say?
Utilitarian Approach:The ethical action is the one that will produce the greatest balance of benefits over harms.
  • Which option will produce the most good and do the least harm?
Rights Approach:The ethical action is the one that most dutifully respects the rights of all affected.
  • Even if not everyone gets all they want, will everyone's rights and dignity still be respected?

Fairness or Justice Approach:The ethical action is the one that treats people equally, or if unequally, that treats people proportionately and fairly.

  • Which option is fair to all stakeholders?
Common Good Approach:The ethical action is the one that contributes most to the achievement of a quality common life together.
  • Which option would help all participate more fully in the life we share as a family, community, society?
Virtue Approach: The ethical action is the one that embodies the habits and values of humans at their best.
  • Would you want to become the sort of person who acts this way (e.g., a person of courage or compassion)?
make a decision and test it
Make a Decision and Test It
  • Considering all these perspectives, which of the options is the right or best thing to do?
  • If you told someone you respect why you chose this option, what would that person say? If you had to explain your decision on television, would you be comfortable doing so?
act then reflect on the decision later
Act, Then Reflect on the Decision Later
  • Implement your decision. How did it turn out for all concerned? If you had it to do over again, what would you do differently?
everyday ethics 5 questions
Everyday Ethics: 5 Questions
  • Did I practice any virtues today?
  • Did I do more harm than good today?
  • Did I treat people with dignity and respect today?
  • Was I fair and just today?
  • Was my community better because I was in it?
personal advice
Personal Advice
  • Set clear expectations.
  • “Those who are faithful in little things will be faithful in big things”.
  • Maintain margin
  • “Run your own race” – define success for yourself.
  • Recognize the trap
  • "Our character is what we do when we think no one is looking.“
    • Jackson Browne
  • "Sow an act...reap a habit; Sow a habit...reap a character; Sow a character...reap a destiny."
    • George Dana Boardman