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A Framework for Thinking about International Organization

A Framework for Thinking about International Organization

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A Framework for Thinking about International Organization

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  1. A Framework for Thinking about International Organization Lecture 20: 26 April 2012J A Morrison The Premiere Journal International Organization

  2. Lec 20: International Organization • Preliminaries • The Nature of IO • The Mechanisms of Organization • The Causes and Consequences of IO • The Extent of IO Across Time and Space

  3. Lec 20: International Organization • Preliminaries • The Nature of IO • The Mechanisms of Organization • The Causes and Consequences of IO • The Extent of IO Across Time and Space

  4. PS 109b International Politics • Unit 1: Studying International Relations • Unit 2: War & Peace • Unit 3: International Political Economy • Unit 4: International Organization • Unit 5: Contemporary Issues in International Politics

  5. PS 109b International Politics • Unit 1: Studying International Relations✓ • Unit 2: War & Peace✓ • Unit 3: International Political Economy✓ • Unit 4: International Organization • Unit 5: Contemporary Issues in International Politics

  6. When we consider international organization, we study more than just international organizations.We think about the organization of the international system.

  7. We'll spend today thinking about this very big issue of the organization of the international system.

  8. Working through this will require some time and patience. But it's important that you get some sense of what is out there so you can continue studying this in the years to come.

  9. Next time, we'll look at some specific examples…An organization: the United Nations.A mechanism of organization: international law.

  10. Lec 20: International Organization • Preliminaries • The Nature of IO • The Mechanisms of Organization • The Causes and Consequences of IO • The Extent of IO Across Time and Space

  11. II. The Nature of International Organization • What are "organized" relations? • Is international organization the same type of thing as domestic organization? • What are the implications?

  12. What does it mean for the international system to be "organized" or to be "disorganized"?

  13. Here are some possibilities…(Note: These are contested; and they may not all be compatible!)

  14. Organized Relations(?) • Security • Peaceful • Stable/Predictable • Cooperative: Minimized Security Dilemma • International Political Economy • Economic Growth • Economic Integration • Stable/Predictable • Cooperative: Coordination of Policy

  15. II. The Nature of International Organization • What are "organized" relations? • International versus Domestic Organization • The Implications of our Answers

  16. Remember Kenneth Waltz's starting point: A Theory of InternationalPolitics.

  17. Is the organization of international politics the same type of thing as the organization of domestic politics?Is the difference one of degree or of type?

  18. We might offer two different answers to this question…

  19. (1) Waltz: No! • Int'l Pol has a distinct logic from Domes Pol • Domestic: Hierarchy • International: Anarchy • We need separate theories for each level of politics • Domestic: Hegemony  Peace & Stability • International: Balance of Power  Peace & Stability

  20. (2) John Ikenberry: Yes! "Both domestic and international order can take many different forms. In some countries, politics can be extremely ruthless and coercive, whereas some areas of international politics are remarkably consensual and institutionalized…The most useful insight might be that both realms of politics—domestic and international—face similar problems in the creation and maintenance of order, and the solutions that emerge are often different but sometimes similar." G. John Ikenberry. After Victory. p 21.

  21. Ikenberry argues that these realms are sometimes so similar that we may have difficulty knowing whether certain political relations are "domestic" or "international"…

  22. Domestic or International Politics? • American Revolution • American Civil War • 1914: Britain & India; Britain & New Zealand • Rwanda 1994: Hutus & Tutsis • Israel-Palestine Conflict Today • France & Germany Today

  23. II. The Nature of International Organization • What are "organized" relations? • International versus Domestic Organization • The Implications of our Answers

  24. Clearly, it matters a great deal what we consider "organized" or "orderly" relations to be—particularly if the different conceptions are not always the same.

  25. The second question, though, may matter even more: is IP essentially different from DP?

  26. If IP is the same type of thing as DP, then we ought to look inward to DP to determine how to influence the level of organization in the international system.

  27. If it is different, however, then we must formulate new, unique theories of IP, as Waltz suggested.

  28. Lec 20: International Organization • Preliminaries • The Nature of IO • The Mechanisms of Organization • The Causes and Consequences of IO • The Extent of IO Across Time and Space

  29. International Regimes "sets of implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules and decision-making procedures around which actors' expectations converge in a given area of international relations. Principles are beliefs of fact, causation, and rectitude. Norms are standards of behavior defined in terms of rights and obligations. Rules are specific prescriptions or proscriptions for action. Decision-making procedures are prevailing practices for making and implementing collective choice." Keohane, R. After Hegemony. 57

  30. That definition is both broader and narrower than we might like.Here is how I like to think about the mechanisms of IO…

  31. (1) International Organizations • Characteristics • Collections/groups of autonomous states • Broader mandate; more diffused direction • Examples: WTO; UN; OECD; G8 • Means by which they "organize" IP • Forum for dispute resolution • Centralize and distribute information • Channel and signal shared opinion • Enhance coordination • Create "clubs" with benefits (which changes incentives)

  32. (2) International Institutions • Characteristics • Transnational entity: bureaucracy; treaty • Narrower mandate; focused direction • Examples: IMF; World Bank; NATO • Means by which they "organize" IP • Provide public goods • Centralize and distribute information • Enhance coordination • Constrain behavior (by raising costs of defection)

  33. (3) International Norms • Characteristics • Prescriptive maxims and logics of behavior • Broadest mandate; most diffuse direction • Examples: Gold Standard; No assassination (?) • Means by which they "organize" IP • Enhance coordination • Constrain behavior (by raising costs of defection)

  34. Of course, there is some overlap there. This framework is just intended to roughly distinguish between the different mechanisms of int'l org.

  35. Lec 20: International Organization • Preliminaries • The Nature of IO • The Mechanisms of Organization • The Causes and Consequences of IO • The Extent of IO Across Time and Space

  36. Why does organization happen? What follows when it does?

  37. Naturally, the answers to these questions depend on the answers to our previous questions.But here are some of the most frequently considered responses…

  38. (1) Mearsheimer & Hegemonic Stability Theorists • Nature of IO • Distinct from Domestic Organization • Mechanism of IO • Distribution of power • Cause • States pursue hegemony to increase their own security • Consequences • Hegemons force compliance of small states • Hegemons provide public goods

  39. (2) Waltz • Nature of IO • Distinct from Domestic Organization • Mechanism of IO • Distribution of power • Cause • States actively manage balance of power • Consequences • Balance of power generates peace & stability

  40. (3) Keohane; Axelrod • Nature of IO • Distinct from Domestic Organization • Mechanism of IO • Int'l "regimes" • Cause • Relatively equal powers face prisoner's dilemma • Consequences • Regimes grant escape from prisoner's dilemma

  41. (4) Ikenberry • Nature of IO • Not Distinct from Domestic Organization • Mechanism of IO • Int'l "regimes" among unequal powers • Cause • Great powers create institutions to lock in their superior positions • Consequences • Regimes facilitate int'l cooperation

  42. Lec 20: International Organization • Preliminaries • The Nature of IO • The Mechanisms of Organization • The Causes and Consequences of IO • The Extent of IO Across Time and Space

  43. So, there are a lot of questions about international organization.This lecture should present some of the different ways we might consider international organization.It provides a framework.

  44. But how ought we evaluate the robustness of this framework? Empirically, of course!

  45. Pre-War Europe: Organized(?) • Mechanisms: Norms • Int'l Gold Standard; "Rules of the Game" • Balance of Power(?) • Causes of Organization • Benevolent British Hegemony(?) • Continental Balance of Power(?) • Historical Processes of Cooperation • Consequences • Peace • Integration • Relative Stability

  46. Interwar Europe: Disorganized(?) • Mechanisms: Institutions • League of Nations • Treaty of Versailles • Causes of Disorganization • WWI redefined interests and identities as antagonistic • Treaty constrained Germany too much; it was side-stepped • League was too weak • Consequences • Hostility • Instability • Uncooperative, cutthroat "beggar-thy-neighbor" policies

  47. Keep Rocking • Next Tuesday • An Organization: the UN • A Mechanism: International Law