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A Framework for Thinking about International Organization. Lecture 20: 26 April 2012 J A Morrison. The Premiere Journal International Organization. Lec 20: International Organization. Preliminaries The Nature of IO The Mechanisms of Organization The Causes and Consequences of IO

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a framework for thinking about international organization

A Framework for Thinking about International Organization

Lecture 20: 26 April 2012J A Morrison

The Premiere Journal International Organization

lec 20 international organization
Lec 20: International Organization
  • Preliminaries
  • The Nature of IO
  • The Mechanisms of Organization
  • The Causes and Consequences of IO
  • The Extent of IO Across Time and Space
lec 20 international organization1
Lec 20: International Organization
  • Preliminaries
  • The Nature of IO
  • The Mechanisms of Organization
  • The Causes and Consequences of IO
  • The Extent of IO Across Time and Space
ps 109b international politics
PS 109b International Politics
  • Unit 1: Studying International Relations
  • Unit 2: War & Peace
  • Unit 3: International Political Economy
  • Unit 4: International Organization
  • Unit 5: Contemporary Issues in International Politics
ps 109b international politics1
PS 109b International Politics
  • Unit 1: Studying International Relations✓
  • Unit 2: War & Peace✓
  • Unit 3: International Political Economy✓
  • Unit 4: International Organization
  • Unit 5: Contemporary Issues in International Politics
slide6

When we consider international organization, we study more than just international organizations.We think about the organization of the international system.

slide7
We'll spend today thinking about this very big issue of the organization of the international system.
slide8

Working through this will require some time and patience. But it's important that you get some sense of what is out there so you can continue studying this in the years to come.

slide9
Next time, we'll look at some specific examples…An organization: the United Nations.A mechanism of organization: international law.
lec 20 international organization2
Lec 20: International Organization
  • Preliminaries
  • The Nature of IO
  • The Mechanisms of Organization
  • The Causes and Consequences of IO
  • The Extent of IO Across Time and Space
ii the nature of international organization
II. The Nature of International Organization
  • What are "organized" relations?
  • Is international organization the same type of thing as domestic organization?
  • What are the implications?
what does it mean for the international system to be organized or to be disorganized
What does it mean for the international system to be "organized" or to be "disorganized"?
organized relations
Organized Relations(?)
  • Security
    • Peaceful
    • Stable/Predictable
    • Cooperative: Minimized Security Dilemma
  • International Political Economy
    • Economic Growth
    • Economic Integration
    • Stable/Predictable
    • Cooperative: Coordination of Policy
ii the nature of international organization1
II. The Nature of International Organization
  • What are "organized" relations?
  • International versus Domestic Organization
  • The Implications of our Answers
slide17

Is the organization of international politics the same type of thing as the organization of domestic politics?Is the difference one of degree or of type?

1 waltz no
(1) Waltz: No!
  • Int'l Pol has a distinct logic from Domes Pol
    • Domestic: Hierarchy
    • International: Anarchy
  • We need separate theories for each level of politics
    • Domestic: Hegemony  Peace & Stability
    • International: Balance of Power  Peace & Stability
2 john ikenberry yes
(2) John Ikenberry: Yes!

"Both domestic and international order can take many different forms. In some countries, politics can be extremely ruthless and coercive, whereas some areas of international politics are remarkably consensual and institutionalized…The most useful insight might be that both realms of politics—domestic and international—face similar problems in the creation and maintenance of order, and the solutions that emerge are often different but sometimes similar."

G. John Ikenberry. After Victory. p 21.

slide21

Ikenberry argues that these realms are sometimes so similar that we may have difficulty knowing whether certain political relations are "domestic" or "international"…

domestic or international politics
Domestic or International Politics?
  • American Revolution
  • American Civil War
  • 1914: Britain & India; Britain & New Zealand
  • Rwanda 1994: Hutus & Tutsis
  • Israel-Palestine Conflict Today
  • France & Germany Today
ii the nature of international organization2
II. The Nature of International Organization
  • What are "organized" relations?
  • International versus Domestic Organization
  • The Implications of our Answers
slide24

Clearly, it matters a great deal what we consider "organized" or "orderly" relations to be—particularly if the different conceptions are not always the same.

slide26

If IP is the same type of thing as DP, then we ought to look inward to DP to determine how to influence the level of organization in the international system.

if it is different however then we must formulate new unique theories of ip as waltz suggested
If it is different, however, then we must formulate new, unique theories of IP, as Waltz suggested.
lec 20 international organization3
Lec 20: International Organization
  • Preliminaries
  • The Nature of IO
  • The Mechanisms of Organization
  • The Causes and Consequences of IO
  • The Extent of IO Across Time and Space
international regimes
International Regimes

"sets of implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules and decision-making procedures around which actors' expectations converge in a given area of international relations. Principles are beliefs of fact, causation, and rectitude. Norms are standards of behavior defined in terms of rights and obligations. Rules are specific prescriptions or proscriptions for action. Decision-making procedures are prevailing practices for making and implementing collective choice."

Keohane, R. After Hegemony. 57

slide30
That definition is both broader and narrower than we might like.Here is how I like to think about the mechanisms of IO…
1 international organization s
(1) International Organizations
  • Characteristics
    • Collections/groups of autonomous states
    • Broader mandate; more diffused direction
  • Examples: WTO; UN; OECD; G8
  • Means by which they "organize" IP
    • Forum for dispute resolution
    • Centralize and distribute information
    • Channel and signal shared opinion
    • Enhance coordination
    • Create "clubs" with benefits (which changes incentives)
2 international institutions
(2) International Institutions
  • Characteristics
    • Transnational entity: bureaucracy; treaty
    • Narrower mandate; focused direction
  • Examples: IMF; World Bank; NATO
  • Means by which they "organize" IP
    • Provide public goods
    • Centralize and distribute information
    • Enhance coordination
    • Constrain behavior (by raising costs of defection)
3 international norms
(3) International Norms
  • Characteristics
    • Prescriptive maxims and logics of behavior
    • Broadest mandate; most diffuse direction
  • Examples: Gold Standard; No assassination (?)
  • Means by which they "organize" IP
    • Enhance coordination
    • Constrain behavior (by raising costs of defection)
slide34

Of course, there is some overlap there. This framework is just intended to roughly distinguish between the different mechanisms of int'l org.

lec 20 international organization4
Lec 20: International Organization
  • Preliminaries
  • The Nature of IO
  • The Mechanisms of Organization
  • The Causes and Consequences of IO
  • The Extent of IO Across Time and Space
slide37

Naturally, the answers to these questions depend on the answers to our previous questions.But here are some of the most frequently considered responses…

1 mearsheimer hegemonic stability theorists
(1) Mearsheimer & Hegemonic Stability Theorists
  • Nature of IO
    • Distinct from Domestic Organization
  • Mechanism of IO
    • Distribution of power
  • Cause
    • States pursue hegemony to increase their own security
  • Consequences
    • Hegemons force compliance of small states
    • Hegemons provide public goods
2 waltz
(2) Waltz
  • Nature of IO
    • Distinct from Domestic Organization
  • Mechanism of IO
    • Distribution of power
  • Cause
    • States actively manage balance of power
  • Consequences
    • Balance of power generates peace & stability
3 keohane axelrod
(3) Keohane; Axelrod
  • Nature of IO
    • Distinct from Domestic Organization
  • Mechanism of IO
    • Int'l "regimes"
  • Cause
    • Relatively equal powers face prisoner's dilemma
  • Consequences
    • Regimes grant escape from prisoner's dilemma
4 ikenberry
(4) Ikenberry
  • Nature of IO
    • Not Distinct from Domestic Organization
  • Mechanism of IO
    • Int'l "regimes" among unequal powers
  • Cause
    • Great powers create institutions to lock in their superior positions
  • Consequences
    • Regimes facilitate int'l cooperation
lec 20 international organization5
Lec 20: International Organization
  • Preliminaries
  • The Nature of IO
  • The Mechanisms of Organization
  • The Causes and Consequences of IO
  • The Extent of IO Across Time and Space
slide43

So, there are a lot of questions about international organization.This lecture should present some of the different ways we might consider international organization.It provides a framework.

but how ought we evaluate the robustness of this framework empirically of course
But how ought we evaluate the robustness of this framework? Empirically, of course!
pre war europe organized
Pre-War Europe: Organized(?)
  • Mechanisms: Norms
    • Int'l Gold Standard; "Rules of the Game"
    • Balance of Power(?)
  • Causes of Organization
    • Benevolent British Hegemony(?)
    • Continental Balance of Power(?)
    • Historical Processes of Cooperation
  • Consequences
    • Peace
    • Integration
    • Relative Stability
interwar europe disorganized
Interwar Europe: Disorganized(?)
  • Mechanisms: Institutions
    • League of Nations
    • Treaty of Versailles
  • Causes of Disorganization
    • WWI redefined interests and identities as antagonistic
    • Treaty constrained Germany too much; it was side-stepped
    • League was too weak
  • Consequences
    • Hostility
    • Instability
    • Uncooperative, cutthroat "beggar-thy-neighbor" policies
keep rocking
Keep Rocking
  • Next Tuesday
    • An Organization: the UN
    • A Mechanism: International Law