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The Internet: A Resource for All of Us Chapter 8 Objectives Briefly describe the history of the Internet Explain what is needed to get on the Internet Describe generally what an Internet service provider does Describe the rudimentary functions of a browser

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The Internet: A Resource for All of Us

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  • Briefly describe the history of the Internet
  • Explain what is needed to get on the Internet
  • Describe generally what an Internet service provider does
  • Describe the rudimentary functions of a browser
  • Describe how to search the Internet
  • List and describe the non-Web parts of the Internet
  • Explain some of the ongoing problems associated with the Internet
  • History of the Internet
  • URL
  • Getting Started
  • Internet Service Provider
  • Browser
  • Browser Support
  • Moving Between Sites
  • Searching the Internet
  • Other Uses of the Internet
  • Internet Issues
history of the internet
History of the Internet
  • Government and Universities over 30 years
  • Who’s connected today?
    • Individuals
    • Educational institutions
    • Government
    • Research
    • Medical
    • Businesses
    • Everyone!
arpanet advanced research projects agency network
ARPANetAdvanced Research Projects Agency Network
  • 1969 – US Department of Defense and Rand Corporation
  • Origins
    • Cold War – fear that a bomb could demolish computing capabilities
    • Several computers, geographically dispersed, networked together
    • Plan – if one computer was disabled, others could carry on using alternative communication routes
arpanet transmitting the message
ARPANetTransmitting the Message
  • Messages divided into packets
  • TCP/IP protocol
    • TCP – does the packeting and reassembling of the message
    • IP – handles the addressing
arpanet expands beyond the military
ARPANetExpands Beyond the Military
  • Research computers from universities
  • Defense contractors
  • Needed technical expertise to work on Internet
tim berners lee
Tim Berners-Lee
  • 1990
  • Perceived a spider’s web of computers with links from computer to computer
  • CERN site
    • Dr. Berners-Lee’s physics laboratory
    • Birthplace of the World Wide Web
  • Easy movement due to links
    • Hypertext
    • Hyper-region
marc andreessen
Marc Andreessen
  • 1993
  • Created browser software
  • Mosaic – first browser
  • Provided attractive images and a graphical interface permitting users to click on pictures as well as text
arpanet to internet
ARPANet to Internet
  • TCP/IP software is public domain
  • Network became more valuable as it embraced other networks
  • ARPANet disappears
internet explosion
Internet Explosion
  • Mid 1990s
  • Estimate over 333 million users worldwide
  • Part of our daily lives
  • Four factors
    • TCP/IP standard
    • Ability to link from site to site
    • Ease of use of browser
    • Growth of PC and LANs that can connect
url uniform resource locator
URLUniform Resource Locator
  • Unique address of a web page or file on the Internet
  • Case-sensitive

http hypertext transfer protocol
httphypertext transfer protocol
  • Protocol – rules
  • Communication using links

domain name
Domain name
  • Address of the ISP
  • Domain names are registered
  • Ongoing fee is paid for each domain name

top level domain
Top-level Domain

Represent the purpose of the organization of entity






May be a two-letter country code

last section
Last section

Directories and file names that specify a particular web page

getting started
Getting Started
  • Computer with a modem or NIC
  • Internet service provider (ISP)
  • Browser
  • Related software
internet service provider
Internet Service Provider
  • Vehicle to access the Internet
  • Provides
    • Server computer
    • Software to connect
online service
Online service
  • ISP
  • Members-only services and information
  • Simple interface with clickable topics
  • Parent controls
wireless internet access
Wireless Internet Access
  • Supports mobile handheld devices
    • Text pagers
    • PDAs
    • Pocket computers
    • Web-enabled cellular phones
  • Applications
    • E-mail
    • Checking weather
    • Making airline reservations
wireless internet access21
Wireless Internet Access
  • Need
    • Account with wireless access provider
    • Cellular modem card or adapter
  • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
    • Convert web pages into format for mobile devices
    • Resized for limited display area
    • Fewer graphics transmitted
  • Slow download speeds

Netscape Communicator

Microsoft Internet Explorer

  • Used to explore the Internet
  • Dials the ISP
  • Display web pages
browser functions and features
BrowserFunctions and Features
  • Browser display window
    • Displays contents of web page from each Internet site visited
    • Screen limits how much of the site you can view at a time. The page can be scrolled using the scroll bar to see its entire contents
  • Status line – progress of data being transferred and other messages
browser functions and features26
BrowserFunctions and Features
  • Welcome banner on title bar
  • Browser logo – animation indicates you are in the process of moving to a new site
  • Hot list
    • Bookmark
    • Favorites
    • Store your favorite URLs
  • Browser control panel – menus and buttons
browser menus and buttons
BrowserMenus and Buttons
  • Pull-down menu
  • Buttons
    • Convenient shortcuts for commonly used functions
    • Click button rather than locate command from pull-down menu
browser support frames
Browser SupportFrames
  • Divides page into rectangular sections
  • Each section displays web pages independently
  • Several small pages on one screen
    • Can be scrolled independently
    • Can be replaced with other pages independently
plug ins
  • Software that increases the functionality of a browser
    • Audio-video
    • Image viewing
  • Download from web sites
  • Install
  • Example
    • Adobe Acrobat Reader
    • Shockwave


  • Write software that is machine independent
  • Programming language
    • Dancing icons
    • Sound clips
    • Flashing messages
    • Banners that scroll
  • Applets – Permits dynamic web pages
    • Display animations
    • Receive input
    • Perform calculations

ActiveX Controls

Capabilities similar to Java

Browser must be enabled to support applets / ActiveX Controls

Security issues

moving between sites
Moving Between Sites
  • Clickable categories in the browser
    • Sports
    • Weather
    • News
    • Technology
    • Comic strips
  • Enter the URL in the address text box and press <Enter>
processing requests url
Processing RequestsURL
  • User enters a URL
  • User computer sends request to the ISP server
  • ISP server sends request across networks of TCP/IP computers
  • Destination site is reached
  • Content is transmitted back to your computer (process in reverse)
searching the internet
Searching the Internet

Search engine

  • User specifies a search request
  • Browser links to Search Engine
  • Request returns matching pages based upon the Search Engine’s database
  • Results presented
processing requests search engine database
Processing RequestsSearch Engine Database
  • Search Engine builds database
    • Searchable terms
    • Related web sites
  • Spider, robot, bot
    • Follows links across the web
    • Automatically indexes pages to a database
      • One word
      • All words
  • Pages may be submitted by the owner
processing requests search engine database36
Processing RequestsSearch Engine Database
  • Request same search using different engines yields different results
  • Databases built independently
    • Size
    • Content
    • Search methodology
  • Metasearch – atomically puts the same request to several search engines
processing requests directory vs search engine
Processing RequestsDirectory vs. Search Engine
  • Directory
    • Human involvement
    • Sites organized by content category
    • May concentrate on specific content areas
    • Subjective decisions regarding inclusion and importance
  • Search Engine
    • Spider, robot, or bot automatically builds database
    • Index on a few keywords
    • Index on all words on web page
processing requests search engine limitations
Processing RequestsSearch Engine Limitations
  • Index only a fraction of the Web
  • Approximately 20% to 33% of sites
  • More web pages added daily
  • Solution
    • Same request to several search engines
    • Metasearch
search tools



Metasearch Sites



Search Engines







Northern Light

Search Tools
refine the search
Refine the Search
  • Add words
  • Enclose words in “quotes”
  • Use Boolean logic
  • Examples
    • “World Trade Center”
    • Jordan AND NOT Michael
other uses of the internet
Other Uses of the Internet
  • Newsgroups
  • FTP
  • Telnet
  • E-mail
  • Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
newsgroups usenet
Newsgroups / Usenet
  • Large bulletin board divided by category
  • Posting and reading of messages that focus on specific topics
  • Over 20,000 newsgroups
  • Functions
    • Conversation
    • File download
  • Newsreader software required (included with most browsers)
newsgroup operations
Newsgroup Operations
  • Lurking
  • Posting material
    • Inappropriate material
      • Flame
      • Flame war
    • Moderated newsgroup
ftp file transfer protocol
FTPFile Transfer Protocol
  • Download files to your local computer
  • Upload files to another computer
  • Requirements to download file
    • Permission to download from a site
    • File is available for copying
  • Anonymous FTP – do not need to identify yourself to the remote computer
public archives
Public Archives


Free files provided by educational institution or the government





  • Use your PC as a terminal providing remote access to another computer
  • Permits
    • Log on to a host
    • Use as if you are sitting at a local terminal
  • Need account on the host system
  • Telnet software required (provided with most browsers)
e mail
  • Send/receive written messages
  • Most used feature of the Internet
  • Mail server – Collects and stores e-mail
  • Mailbox – Assigned to each user
  • E-mail address
    • User name
    • @
    • Domain of the mail server
e mail client software functions






Address book

Attach files


e-mailClient Software Functions
not quite perfect yet
Not Quite Perfect Yet
  • Unregulated
  • Useless web sites
  • Misinformation and misstatements on web sites
  • Concern over government censorship
not quite perfect yet social issues
Not Quite Perfect YetSocial Issues
  • Behavior problems
    • Who is out there?
    • What are they doing?
  • Netiquette
    • Suggestions for appropriate behavior
    • Example: TYPING IN CAPS is shouting