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Social Interaction. Chapter 4 (At least the last 7 pages of the chapter). Social Interaction. Social Interaction- …is the process in which people act toward or respond to others. . Symbolic Interactionism. Symbolic Interactionism-

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social interaction

Social Interaction

Chapter 4

(At least the last 7 pages of the chapter)

social interaction2
Social Interaction
  • Social Interaction-
  • …is the process in which people act toward or respond to others.
symbolic interactionism
Symbolic Interactionism
  • Symbolic Interactionism-
  • …human interaction is mediated by the use of symbols, by interpretation, by ascertaining the meaning of one another’s actions. (Stimulus and response in the case of human behavior.)
symbolic interactionism4
Symbolic Interactionism
  • Herbert Blummer-
  • ...we act towards things according to the meaning we give them
  • ...meaning arises out of social interaction.
  • ...in any situation, we go through an internal process of interpretation,(...), in order to assign meaning to the situation and decide how to act.
ethnomethodology
Ethnomethodology
  • A term coined by Harold Garfinkel-
  • ...an analysis of the rules (ethnomethods) people follow in everyday social interaction.
  • Background assumptions- Deal with shared assumptions.
  • ...behavior patterns that are so taken for granted that they are not noticed unless they are disrupted.
ethnomethodology6
Ethnomethodology
  • Breaching Experiments-
  • ...behavior in which the researcher refuse to share the basic assumptions of the situation.
dramaturgic sociology
Dramaturgic Sociology
  • Erving Goffman- Compares human interaction to the role of actors in a theater. (Shakespeare)
  • Impression Management-
  • ...refers to the attempt to present ourselves to others so they will see us as we wish to be seen.
  • Goal of Impression Management-
dramaturgic approach
Dramaturgic Approach
  • Backstage/Frontstage Behavior-
  • Nonverbal Communication-
  • ...is communication transmitted in symbols other than language.
types of nonverbal communication
Types of Nonverbal Communication
  • Body Language-
  • Facial expression- a rich source of nonverbal information because they reveal emotions so directly.
  • Fear
  • Happiness
  • Surprise
  • Anger
types of nonverbal communication body language cont d
Types of Nonverbal Communication- Body Language Cont’d
  • Gestures- movements of the body which vary from culture to culture.
  • Posture- the way people hold themselves. (In addition to a person’s gait)
types of nonverbal communication11
Types of Nonverbal Communication
  • Personal Space- The area surrounding a person that is employed consciously or unconsciously to convey meaning.
  • Intimate Distance- Contact to 18 inches
  • Personal Distance- 18 inches to 4 feet
  • Social Distance- 4 feet to 12 feet
  • Public Distance- Beyond 12 feet
social structure
Social Structure
  • Refers to the way the units of a group or society relate to one another.
  • Characteristics-
  • ...remains stable despite changes in the population.
  • ...makes possible efficient human activity.
  • ...restricts personal freedom. (When excessive it may cause social change)
units of social structure
Units of Social Structure
  • Status- a socially defined position in a group or society.
  • Types of Statuses:
  • Achieved Status- is the status that an individual attains through direct effect.
  • Ascribed Status- is the status that is assigned to a person according to standards beyond their control.
units of social structure cont d
Units of Social Structure: Cont’d
  • Master Status- is the status that dominates and determines an individual’s social position.
  • ...usually occupationally defined.
units of social structure cont d15
Units of Social Structure: Cont’d
  • Role- is the behavior expected of someone with a given status in a group or society. (You occupy a status, but you play a role.)
  • Types of Roles:
  • Role Set-
  • ...is the set of roles associated with a given status.
units of social structure types of roles cont d
Units of Social StructureTypes of Roles: Cont’d
  • Role Expectation-
  • ...is society’s definition of the way a role ought to be played.
  • Role Performance-
  • ...is the way the person actually plays the role.
units of social structure types of roles cont d17
Units of Social StructureTypes of Roles: Cont’d
  • Role Conflict-
  • ...refers to the opposing demands made on a person by two or more roles expected of a person.
  • Role Strain-
  • ...occurs when opposing demands are built into a single role.
leadership roles
Leadership Roles
  • Instrumental Leadership- is directed toward having the group meet its goals.
  • Expressive Leadership- seeks to create group unity and harmony. (Concerned with emotional and social issues.)
leadership styles
Leadership Styles
  • Authoritarian Leadership- Characteristics:
  • Exhibits the highest degree of hostility.
  • Exhibits the highest degree of aggression.
  • Leaders are personal in their criticism.
  • Only one person determines group policy and assigns tasks.
leadership styles20
Leadership Styles
  • Democratic Leadership Style; Characteristics:
  • Policy and tasks are decided through group discussion.
  • Criticism is objective and fair.
leadership styles21
Leadership Styles
  • Laissez-Faire Leadership Style- Characteristics:
  • There is complete freedom of the membership.
  • There is little comment on member’s actions.
  • There is minimal involvement by the leadership.
group decision making process
Group Decision Making Process
  • Risky Shift- Is a phenomenon in which groups make riskier decisions than people working alone.
  • Groupthink- Occurs when the desire to be unanimous overrides critical thinking.
  • Mind Guards- Are members who stamp out potential dissension and protects the consensus.
forms of social interaction exchange relationships
Forms of Social InteractionExchange Relationships
  • George Homans- Exchange Theory ...self interest is the universal motive behind the way people behave toward one another.
  • Exchange Relationships occur when a person acts in a certain way toward another to receive a reward or return.
forms of social interaction cooperation
Forms of Social InteractionCooperation
  • Cooperation- Is the interaction of people or groups in order to achieve common interests or goals.
  • Robert Nisbet- Types of cooperation:
  • Spontaneous Cooperation- Is the oldest and most universal. (Mutual aid.)
  • Traditional Cooperation- Cooperation that becomes fixed in a society’s customs.
forms of social interaction cooperation cont d
Forms of Social InteractionCooperation Cont’d
  • Directed Cooperation- Cooperation that is directed by a third party.
  • Contractual Cooperation- Occurs when groups formally agree to cooperate in certain ways.
forms of social interaction conflict relationships
Forms of Social InteractionConflict Relationships
  • Georg Simmel- Defined four major types of conflicts.
  • War between groups.
  • Conflict within groups.
  • Litigation
  • Clash over impersonal ideals.
positive results of conflict
Positive Results of Conflict
  • Conflict can bind people on opposing sides into groups.
  • Conflict can lead to needed social change.