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Reproduction. Asexual Reproduction. What is reproduction?. Reproduction is the process by which organisms produce more of their own kind. Think about it – Without reproduction, all life on earth would no longer exist. . Reproduction:. Reproduction. The Continuity of Life.

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reproduction

Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction

what is reproduction
What is reproduction?

Reproduction is the process by which

organisms produce more of their own kind.

  • Think about it – Without reproduction, all

life on earth would no longer exist.

reproduction3

Reproduction:

Reproduction

The Continuity of Life

Sexual

Reproduction

Asexual

Reproduction

what is asexual reproduction
What is Asexual Reproduction?
  • Only one parent is involved.
  • Offspring are genetically identical to their parents.
  • All cells that come from a single cell are genetically identical to it and to each other; they are all clones.
types of asexual reproduction
Types of Asexual Reproduction
  • Mitosis - is the exact duplication of the nucleus of a cell so as to form two identical nuclei during cell division.
types of asexual reproduction6
Types of Asexual Reproduction

2.Binary Fission - occurs in one-celled organisms such as the ameba and paramecium. The nucleus divides by mitosis and the cytoplasm divides, forming 2 new daughter cells of equal size.

types of asexual reproduction7
Types of Asexual Reproduction

3. Budding - Occurs in Hydra and yeast. The division of cytoplasm is unequal so one of the daughter cells is larger than the other. The daughter cells can separate or remain attached.

slide8

More examples of budding include:

Sponges, Corals and Jellyfish…

types of asexual reproduction9
Types of Asexual Reproduction

4. Sporulation - occurs in molds, mosses, etc

  • Spores are produced in large numbers by mitosis.
  • Spores are surrounded by a tough coat to help them survive harsh environmental conditions.
types of asexual reproduction10
Types of Asexual Reproduction

5.Regeneration - Refers to the replacement or regrowth of lost or damaged body parts

slide11

Some of these animals can also grow new organisms from the severed pieces (Segmented Worms and Sea Stars)

types of asexual reproduction12
Types of Asexual Reproduction

6.Vegetative Propagation –

Occurs only in plants (vegetative). New plants develop from the roots, stems, or leaves of the parent plant.

slide13
3 methods of vegetative propagation

-tubers

-bulbs

-runners

tubers

Taro- Japanese potato

Tubers

Tubers are underground food stores which stores food over the winter and provides a new plant with food until it can make its own.

Examples: potato, artichoke, yam, cassava, water chestnut, arrowroot

Food made by the new plant is sent to make new tubers. Thereby reproducing itself.

bulbs
Bulbs
  • E.g. daffodils, lilies
runners
Runners

Runners are side shoots which grow out from the parent plant.

Buds form at points along the runner and eventually these buds form roots and grow into new plants.

Examples: spider plant (Anthericum), strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa)

artificial propagation
Artificial Propagation
  • 2 methods used to cultivate plants asexually

-taking cuttings

-grafting

cutting
Cutting

Cuttings are small pieces of stem with some leaves attached, the new plant grows from this.

They can be placed in moist

soil or water (and sometimes

dipped in rooting

powder).

grafting
Grafting

A cut stem of one plant (with good flower or fruit growth) (the graft) is taken and firmly attached to the rootstock of another plant (which has a strong, established root system) (the stock).

Examples- roses, fruit trees

commercial aspects
Commercial aspects

Artificial propagation has allowed us to adapt and improve plants for our own use.

Some of the benefits include:

  • Quick production of large numbers of genetically identical plants.
  • Specific varieties, desired features or consistent quality can be produced especially in fruit, flowers.
types of asexual reproduction21
Types of Asexual Reproduction

7. Parthenogenesis

  • Offspring can arise from unfertilized eggs.
  • Includes some Fish, Reptiles, Amphibians and Aphids.
  • Most of these species can switch between Sexual and Asexual Reproduction.

(depending on conditions)

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Example:

Bees – unfertilized eggs become male drones

- fertilized eggs – female workers or queens