Nutrition & Exercise Performance R.Quintana PhD -Director of Sac State Human Performance Research Laboratory & SHAPE -Advisor/Coach of Elite Runners -Former Competitive Runner
Elite Athlete • Focused • Goal Oriented • Optimal Training (Coaching/Atmosphere) • Consistency (10 years) • Well Fed • Happy
Basics of Nutrition • Energy • Essential Nutrients • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Protein • Minerals • vitamins
Energy Levels and Metabolism • Low Calories • Doubles recovery to 96-120 hrs • Increased catabolic hormones (tear down) and disruption of normal hormonal function • Optimal • Recovery within 24-48 hrs • A balance of catabolic & anabolic hormones • Positive calories • Faster recovery • Optimal for building protein (muscle) & connective tissue • Anabolic Hormone Profile
CHO and Protein • CHO • Roughly 60-65% of calories • 6 servings per day in 5 meals (5-10 gms/kg of BW) • This range is for: • Daily energy needs of 1667 kcal/day (60% CHO intake ~ roughly 5 gms/Kg of BW) • Tapering+CHO loading strategy (10 gms/kg of BW) • Complex 100% whole grains, Fruits, Vegetables • Protein • Roughly 20% of total calories • 1.2 to 1.6 gms/kg of BW in small quantities spread out out over 3-5 meals • Vegetarian and Animal • Lipid • Remaining Calories • Unsaturated FFA (Olive Oil - Virgin) • Essential for neural and anti-inflammatory
Timing of Meals • 5 meals over the course of the day! • Make sure to get 5-7 servings of complex grains, fruits and vegetables with small amount of protein and lipid • Preworkout/Prerace Meal (3 hours prior) • Complex 100% whole grains with water/nonfat milk/nonfat soy (200-400 calories) • Minimize protein and lipid intake • PostRace Meal (within 1 of workout/race) • 20 grams of protein • 200 calories of simple/complex CHO • Speeds adaptation and recovery • Peanut butter & jelly sandwich with nonfat milk
Warning Signs of Inadequate Energy Intake • Signs of overtraining! • Menstrual cycle irregularity • Loss of menstrual cycle • Loss of skeletal muscle • Increased perception of effort • Slow recovery and adaptation • Poor race performance • Depression • Increase injury • Low iron stores
Bone and Connective Tissue • Optimal Caloric Balance • Hormonal profile provides for bone/ligament growth and repair • Fruits and Vegetables provide a ideal pH environment for the body • Avoid sodas, caffeinated drinks and overconsumption of protein (acidity release minerals from bone) • Well balanced diet that contains nonfat milk or soy fortified with calcium and adequate quality protein • 1,000 mg to 1500mg with Vitamin D3 is recommended • Sunlight - Sun-tanning of 15-30 min per day without sunblock
Warning signs of Bone & Connective Tissue Issues • Inadequate intake of calories • Unbalanced diet • Inadequate intake of fruits/vegetables/calcium/VitaminD3 • Loss of menstrual cycle • Stress reactions/fractures • Ligament - tendonitis issues • Knee - Hip injuries
O2 transport and Mitochondrial Function • Iron essential for O2 transport and mitochondrial function! • A drop in Hg from 14 to 13 mg/dL = 3% decrease in O2 transport / utilization • An 18:00 5km runner would be slowed by 32 seconds • How to maintain O2 transport? • Adequate iron intake, well balance diet and maintaining caloric balance!
Warning Signs of Inadequate Fe Stores • Sluggishness • Fatigue • Non-adaptation to training (going backwards) • Increase in perception of effort • Reduced race performance
How Much Iron to Intake? • Well balance diet with lean sources of “red meat intake” • Heme-iron much more absorbable by body • 1 mg of elemental Fe per kg of body weight to maintain levels of ferritin above 30ng/dL (Martin - USATF Recommendation) • Liquid Iron with orange/apple juice (vitamin C) • 1 tsp = 45 mg of Fe for a 45 kg female runner • Too much Fe - poses problems so don’t take too much!
Testing for Anemia & Low Iron Stores • Female Hg levels should be between 12-14 gm/DL • Levels below this indicate anemia - Iron deficiency • Serum Ferritin levels should be above 50 ng/dL (Martin - USATF Recommendation) • Levels between 30-50 ng/dL suboptimal • Levels between 20-30 ng/dL iron depletion • Levels below 20 ng/dL inadequate bone marrow iron
Optimal Nutrition & Training • Optimal nutrition will enhance your training by allowing you to: • Progress and adapt to training • Improve consistency • Lower your injury rate! • Keep you happy • Allow you to achieve your GOALS
Recommended Reading & Websites • “Nutrition Periodization for Endurance Athletes: Taking Traditional Sports Nutrition to the Next level” Author: Bob Seebohar • Nutrition Websites • http://www.nat.uiuc.edu/mainnat.html • http://www.thedailyplate.com • http://www.mypyramid.gov
For Further Information • Roberto Quintana, PhD Director S.H.A.P.E., Human Performance Research, & I.E. Faria Exercise Physiology Research Laboratories CSUS 6000 J Street Sacramento, CA 95819-6073 Phone (916)278-4495 Fax (916)278-7664 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://www.hhs.csus.edu/HomePages/KHS/Quintana/