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Nutrition & Exercise Performance R.Quintana PhD -Director of Sac State Human Performance Research Laboratory & SHAPE -Advisor/Coach of Elite Runners -Former Competitive Runner Elite Athlete Focused Goal Oriented Optimal Training (Coaching/Atmosphere) Consistency (10 years) Well Fed

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nutrition exercise performance

Nutrition & Exercise Performance

R.Quintana PhD

-Director of Sac State Human Performance Research Laboratory & SHAPE

-Advisor/Coach of Elite Runners

-Former Competitive Runner

elite athlete
Elite Athlete
  • Focused
  • Goal Oriented
  • Optimal Training (Coaching/Atmosphere)
  • Consistency (10 years)
  • Well Fed
  • Happy
basics of nutrition
Basics of Nutrition
  • Energy
  • Essential Nutrients
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Protein
    • Minerals
    • vitamins
energy levels and metabolism
Energy Levels and Metabolism
  • Low Calories
    • Doubles recovery to 96-120 hrs
    • Increased catabolic hormones (tear down) and disruption of normal hormonal function
  • Optimal
    • Recovery within 24-48 hrs
    • A balance of catabolic & anabolic hormones
  • Positive calories
    • Faster recovery
    • Optimal for building protein (muscle) & connective tissue
    • Anabolic Hormone Profile
cho and protein
CHO and Protein
  • CHO
    • Roughly 60-65% of calories
    • 6 servings per day in 5 meals (5-10 gms/kg of BW)
      • This range is for:
      • Daily energy needs of 1667 kcal/day (60% CHO intake ~ roughly 5 gms/Kg of BW)
      • Tapering+CHO loading strategy (10 gms/kg of BW)
    • Complex 100% whole grains, Fruits, Vegetables
  • Protein
    • Roughly 20% of total calories
    • 1.2 to 1.6 gms/kg of BW in small quantities spread out out over 3-5 meals
    • Vegetarian and Animal
  • Lipid
    • Remaining Calories
    • Unsaturated FFA (Olive Oil - Virgin)
    • Essential for neural and anti-inflammatory
timing of meals
Timing of Meals
  • 5 meals over the course of the day!
  • Make sure to get 5-7 servings of complex grains, fruits and vegetables with small amount of protein and lipid
  • Preworkout/Prerace Meal (3 hours prior)
    • Complex 100% whole grains with water/nonfat milk/nonfat soy (200-400 calories)
    • Minimize protein and lipid intake
  • PostRace Meal (within 1 of workout/race)
    • 20 grams of protein
    • 200 calories of simple/complex CHO
    • Speeds adaptation and recovery
    • Peanut butter & jelly sandwich with nonfat milk
warning signs of inadequate energy intake
Warning Signs of Inadequate Energy Intake
  • Signs of overtraining!
  • Menstrual cycle irregularity
  • Loss of menstrual cycle
  • Loss of skeletal muscle
  • Increased perception of effort
  • Slow recovery and adaptation
  • Poor race performance
  • Depression
  • Increase injury
  • Low iron stores
bone and connective tissue
Bone and Connective Tissue
  • Optimal Caloric Balance
    • Hormonal profile provides for bone/ligament growth and repair
  • Fruits and Vegetables provide a ideal pH environment for the body
    • Avoid sodas, caffeinated drinks and overconsumption of protein (acidity release minerals from bone)
    • Well balanced diet that contains nonfat milk or soy fortified with calcium and adequate quality protein
  • 1,000 mg to 1500mg with Vitamin D3 is recommended
  • Sunlight - Sun-tanning of 15-30 min per day without sunblock
warning signs of bone connective tissue issues
Warning signs of Bone & Connective Tissue Issues
  • Inadequate intake of calories
  • Unbalanced diet
  • Inadequate intake of fruits/vegetables/calcium/VitaminD3
  • Loss of menstrual cycle
  • Stress reactions/fractures
  • Ligament - tendonitis issues
  • Knee - Hip injuries
o2 transport and mitochondrial function
O2 transport and Mitochondrial Function
  • Iron essential for O2 transport and mitochondrial function!
  • A drop in Hg from 14 to 13 mg/dL = 3% decrease in O2 transport / utilization
  • An 18:00 5km runner would be slowed by 32 seconds
  • How to maintain O2 transport?
  • Adequate iron intake, well balance diet and maintaining caloric balance!
warning signs of inadequate fe stores
Warning Signs of Inadequate Fe Stores
  • Sluggishness
  • Fatigue
  • Non-adaptation to training (going backwards)
  • Increase in perception of effort
  • Reduced race performance
how much iron to intake
How Much Iron to Intake?
  • Well balance diet with lean sources of “red meat intake”
    • Heme-iron much more absorbable by body
  • 1 mg of elemental Fe per kg of body weight to maintain levels of ferritin above 30ng/dL (Martin - USATF Recommendation)
  • Liquid Iron with orange/apple juice (vitamin C)
    • 1 tsp = 45 mg of Fe for a 45 kg female runner
  • Too much Fe - poses problems so don’t take too much!
testing for anemia low iron stores
Testing for Anemia & Low Iron Stores
  • Female Hg levels should be between 12-14 gm/DL
  • Levels below this indicate anemia - Iron deficiency
  • Serum Ferritin levels should be above 50 ng/dL (Martin - USATF Recommendation)
    • Levels between 30-50 ng/dL suboptimal
    • Levels between 20-30 ng/dL iron depletion
    • Levels below 20 ng/dL inadequate bone marrow iron
optimal nutrition training
Optimal Nutrition & Training
  • Optimal nutrition will enhance your training by allowing you to:
  • Progress and adapt to training
  • Improve consistency
  • Lower your injury rate!
  • Keep you happy
  • Allow you to achieve your GOALS
recommended reading websites
Recommended Reading & Websites
  • “Nutrition Periodization for Endurance Athletes: Taking Traditional Sports Nutrition to the Next level” Author: Bob Seebohar
  • Nutrition Websites
    • http://www.nat.uiuc.edu/mainnat.html
    • http://www.thedailyplate.com
    • http://www.mypyramid.gov
for further information
For Further Information
  • Roberto Quintana, PhD

Director S.H.A.P.E., Human Performance Research, & I.E. Faria Exercise Physiology Research Laboratories

CSUS 6000 J Street

Sacramento, CA 95819-6073

Phone (916)278-4495

Fax (916)278-7664

Email: quintana@csus.edu

Web: http://www.hhs.csus.edu/HomePages/KHS/Quintana/