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Population Age Structure. Why is age structure important? How is age structure measures? What determines age structure?. Importance of age structure. Demographic bonus: Age-earnings profile Lifecycle saving: C and Y, Taiwan Fiscal policy: US (Lee and Edwards 2001).

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population age structure
Population Age Structure
  • Why is age structure important?
  • How is age structure measures?
  • What determines age structure?
importance of age structure
Importance of age structure
  • Demographic bonus: Age-earnings profile
  • Lifecycle saving: C and Y, Taiwan
  • Fiscal policy: US (Lee and Edwards 2001)
ii measuring age structure
II. Measuring Age Structure
  • Age distribution
  • Mean age
  • Dependency ratio or support ratio
age distribution
Age distribution
  • Age pyramid: Hawaii
  • Age distribution: Hawaii

f(a,t) = N(a,t)/N(t)

  • Mean Age and dependency ratio: Hawaii

DR=Dependent pop/Working age pop

iii determinants of age structure
III. Determinants of age structure
  • Stable population
  • Over the demographic transition
  • Immigration
stable population
Stable Population
  • A population which has been subject to constant age-specific birth and death rates for an extended period of time.
  • Once stability is achieved:
    • Population growth is constant
    • Age distribution is constant
    • All age groups grow at the same rate
  • Stationary population is stable population with n=0
stable case cont
Stable Case (cont)

Where:

n = population growth rate

B = number of births

s = proportion surviving from birth to age a

N = population

age distributions for stable populations
Age Distributions for Stable Populations

High Mortality Population (early Hawaii)

Low Mortality Population (current US)

demographic transition and age distribution of the population
Demographic Transition and Age Distribution of the Population
  • Age structure is determined both by birth rates and survival rates
  • High TFR leads to young age structure
  • Effect of e0 varies over the transition
    • Early in transition, increase in e0 leads to even younger population (gains are at young ages)
    • Later in transition, increase in e0 leads to older population (gains are at older ages)
demographic transition and 3 phases of age distribution
Demographic Transition and 3 Phases of Age Distribution
  • Phase I: Percent under 15 rises.
  • Phase II: Percent under 15 declines and percent 15-64 rises.
  • Phase III: Percent 15-64 declines and percent 65+ rises.
  • The swings in age-structure depend on how rapidly fertility and mortality change.
immigration and aging
Immigration and aging
  • Immigration often reduces average age of population
    • Immigrants tend to be young adults
    • Immigrants have children
  • Immigration is not a solution to the aging problem (UN Replacement Migration 2001)