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Perceptual Development. Introduction What is the infant’s phenomenological world like? How can we answer this question? Infant methodologies Localization techniques The orienting response Visual localization Auditory localization Habituation/Dishabituation techniques

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perceptual development
Perceptual Development
  • Introduction
    • What is the infant’s phenomenological world like?
    • How can we answer this question?
  • Infant methodologies
    • Localization techniques
      • The orienting response
      • Visual localization
      • Auditory localization
    • Habituation/Dishabituation techniques
      • General habituation procedures
      • The fixed trials version
      • The infant-control procedure
      • Dependent measures of habituation
        • Cardiac deceleration
        • Visual fixation
        • Non-nutritive sucking
    • Operant condition procedures
    • Preference techniques
  • Research in perceptual development
    • Categories of infant capabilities
      • Sensory development
      • The perception of complex stimuli
      • Representational information
    • Depth perception – Albert Yonas
      • Kinetic information – complex
      • Binocular information – sensory
      • Pictorial cues – representational
perceptual development1
Perceptual Development
  • Basic question:
    • What does the infant’s phenomenological consist of?
    • What does the infant perceive and how is it organized
    • Different types of question can be posed
      • Visual acuity
      • Color perception
      • Auditory localization
      • Perception of objects
      • Intermodal perception
  • Behaviors that allow for doing research with infants:
    • Engage in exploratory behavior
    • Preference for novel stimuli
localization techniques
Localization Techniques
  • The orienting response
    • Present infants with a stimulus
    • Measure their exploratory behavior towards the stimulus
    • Can include body turning, head turning, eye gaze
  • Visual localization
    • Present a visual target
    • Look to see if they try to fixate the target
    • Findings using localization technique
  • Auditory localization
    • Present an auditory target
    • Look to see if they try to fixate the target
    • Findings using localization technique
habituation dishabitiuation technique
Habituation/Dishabitiuation Technique

General Procedure

Habituation Stimulus

Dishabituation or Test Stimuli

Test 1

Test 2

habituation dishabituation technique
Habituation/Dishabituation Technique
  • Fixed-trials version:
    • Present infant with a preset number of exposures to the stimulus
      • Example: show stimulus 10 times, for 30 sec each
    • Then present test stimuli for set number of exposures
    • Problems with procedure
  • Infant control version:
    • Present stimulus and measure attention
    • When infant stops attending for set time, take stimulus away – 1 trial
    • Repeat procedure until attention drops below a preset criterion
    • Then present test stimuli for present number of exposures
    • Problems with procedure
  • Measures of infant attention
    • Cardiac deceleration
      • The mean number of heart beats per minute
      • Slowing down means increased attention
    • Visual fixation
      • The amount of time looking at a visual stimulus
      • Increased looking time means increased attention
    • Non-nutritive sucking
      • Sucking pressure on a stimulus
      • Changes in sucking pressure indicate changes in attention
operant conditioning technique
Operant Conditioning Technique
  • Train infant to show a response to a stimulus:
    • Example:
      • Show stimulus A
      • Reinforce infants’ turning their head to look at a target
    • Test generalization of response by presenting a new stimulus
      • Show stimulus B
      • Look at whether infant makes trained response to new stimulus
    • The number of times infant makes a response to the new stimulus is a measure of the perceptual similarity between the two
      • If stimuli perceived as the same, response generalizes to new stimulus
      • If different, do not show trained response
preferential looking technique
Preferential Looking Technique
  • Present two stimuli:
    • Typically simultaneously, sometimes sequentially
    • Measure differences in attention to two different stimuli
    • Sometimes proceeded by a familiarization phase
    • Difference in attention between the two stimuli indicates perceived differences
  • Use in intermodal perception studies:
    • Present single stimulus in one modality (auditory or tactile)
    • Present two stimuli in second modality (visual)
    • Look to see if infants preferentially fixate as a function of the nature of the single stimulus
      • Preference for an intermodal match versus mismatch
      • Reinforce infants’ turning their head to look at a target
  • Violation of Expectation paradigm:
    • Present two visual stimuli
      • Expected (natural, familiar)
      • Unexpected (unnatural, novel)
    • See preferential fixation of unexpected stimulus
    • Indicates knowledge of basis by which unexpected stimulus is unusual or unexpected
sensory development
Sensory Development

Visual acuity

Square Wave Grating

Grey Field

perception of complex stimuli
Perception of Complex Stimuli

Partly-occluded objects

Kellman & Spelke (1983)

Habituation Stimulus

Test 2

Test 1

depth perception albert yonas
Depth Perception (Albert Yonas)
  • Kinetic information (Complex stimuli):
    • Looming
    • Accretion and deletion patterns
    • Perceived at birth (or shortly thereafter)
  • Binocular information (Sensory):
    • Binocular disparity
    • Convergence information
    • Perceived between 3 and 5 months
  • Pictorial Depth Cues (Representational information):
    • Cues used to represent depth in paintings
    • Familiar size, relative depth, linear perspective, interposition
    • Perceived by 7 months
pictorial depth information
Pictorial Depth Information

Interposition Stimulus

Control Stimulus