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METADATA as we know it: MARC in context. An overview Prepared by: Eva Bolkovac As part of a staff training initiative for the JDC/STOD/Cataloging Subcommittee June 2006. JDC/STOD/Cataloging Subcommittee:. Chair: Marena Fisher Core members since October 2005: Kathryn Trotti

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metadata as we know it marc in context

METADATA as we know it: MARC in context

An overview

Prepared by: Eva Bolkovac

As part of a staff training initiative

for the JDC/STOD/Cataloging Subcommittee

June 2006

jdc stod cataloging subcommittee
JDC/STOD/Cataloging Subcommittee:

Chair: Marena Fisher

Core members since October 2005:

Kathryn Trotti

Eva Guggemos

Ana Amelia Contrastano

Additional members:

Joan Swanekamp

Shaundolyn Slaughter

Eva Bolkovac

Consultant: Stephen C. Jones, Chair of STOD

quote from an early metadata practitioner or is it d j vu all over again
Quote from an early Metadata Practitioner, or is it déjà vu (all over again)

I can not help thinking that the golden age of cataloging is over, and the difficulties and discussions which have furnished an innocent pleasure to so many will interest them no more. (Charles A. Cutter, published in 1904)

reference work relies on good catalog records
Reference work relies on good catalog records

“The work of the reference department covers everything necessary to help the reader in his inquiries, including … expert aid in the use of the catalog.”

(Isadore Gilbert Mudge, 1936)

from Guide to reference books. 6th ed.

Chicago: American Library Association

what does this mean for us
What does this mean for us?
  • Cataloging=Metadata
  • Metadata can be harvested automatically by indexing robots
  • Metadata can be embedded in a digital object
  • Cataloging *is* a Public Service that increases the usefulness of information, it aids “resource description and discovery”  metadata helps people find the information they are looking for
what does this mean for us cont
What does this mean for us? Cont.
  • Managing information (including access/rights management), and the long-term preservation of information (digital archiving)
  • Metadata is broader in scope than the traditional role of the technical services librarian/Cataloger
  • Increased collaboration
cataloging metadata
  • When we catalog a book, a serial, a map, etc., we describe that particular item using a metadata standard, MARC21, together with other rules, like AACR2. We create a catalog record.
  • The delivery platform, or mechanism for the catalog record is the LMS, the Library Management System (like our Orbis).
  • Cataloging requires special skills.
cataloging metadata8
  • When we catalog digitized objects, an image of a picture, a manuscript, a finding aid, etc., we describe that particular item, using a metadata standard, DC, TEI, EAD, together with other standards, perhaps AACR2 (or its future version RDA). We create a metadata record.
  • The delivery platform, or mechanism for the metadata record is the Web, or some other digital management software. The LMS is not designed to deliver metadata records on the web, it is MARC-based.
  • Cataloging requires special skills.
sounds similar
Sounds similar?
  • Yes, traditional library cataloging is a form of metadata, BUT THE DIFFERENCE IS IN TECHNOLOGY!
  • The technical environment has completely changed from the MARC-based system to the Internet, to Web delivery, when applying non-MARC XML-based metadata standards.
  • Cataloging principles remain very similar whether applying the MARC21 metadata standard or other non- MARC metadata standards.
  • The new technology brings new sets of rules with itself.
the library s goal is
The library’s goal is:
  • To provide simultaneous access to its traditional library collections as well as its digital collections, in a seamless, integrated manner [searching across multiple data types and databases].
if we didn t catalog
If we didn’t catalog………….

For the user it would mean…………………

metadata is
Metadata is:
  • A simple and classic definition: data about data or information about information
  • More accurately: structured data or information about an information resource
  • Used differently in different user communities according to their needs
  • Machine understandable information designed to be indexed and retrieved on the Web –not by online catalogs
  • In libraries a formal scheme used to describe an object/resource (including digital)
  • MARC21 *is* metadata (ISO 2709) - an international standard used for bibliographic data in library catalogs. It can also be used to describe digital objects (it has limitations)
metadata does
Metadata does:
  • Through cataloging – facilitates discovery of relevant information
  • Facilitates interoperability
  • Facilitates resource discovery. Same as in a quality catalog record!
a metadata record is
A metadata record is…
  • A file of information, usually presented as an XML document
  • It captures the basic characteristics of a data or information resource – structured data about data

(same concept as in a MARC catalog record)

  • Data elements are defined for a metadata record by the rules of a particular standard that is applied
  • Created and maintained
different metadata standards for different folks
Different metadata standards for different folks
  • DC – Dublin Core (ISO15386) :the “CIP” of the digital world – simple
  • DC can be expressed in XML (RDF/XML) Resource Description Framework

(RDF – a data model designed to integrate multiple metadata schemes)

  • QDC – Qualified Dublin Core – more sophisticated than simple DC
  • EAD – Encoded Archival Description created to display finding aids on the web
  • TEI – Text Encoding Initiative for electronic text (Lite version, too)
different metadata standards for different folks cont
Different metadata standards for different folks cont..
  • MathML – Mathematical Markup Language (an application of XML), represents mathematical symbols and formulae
  • FGDC – Federal Geographic Data Committee -for maps (although MARC can be used to describe a map, it is not designed to convey complex numeric information for GIS – Geographic Information Systems - data sets)
  • Onix – Online Information Exchange for book industry, bibliographic, trade used by publishers, an international standard, XML based, libraries may receive Onix records in the future
simple dublin core dc can be embedded in the head of an html document
Simple Dublin Core: DC(can be embedded in the head of an HTML document)

The Simple Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES) consists of 15 metadata elements

Title Type

Creator Format

Subject Identifier

Description Source

Publisher Language

Contributor Relation

Date Coverage


Each Dublin Core element is optional and may be repeated. The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) has established standard ways to refine elements and encourage the use of encoding and vocabulary schemes. There is no prescribed order in Dublin Core for presenting or using the elements.

qualified dublin core qdc
Qualified Dublin Core: QDC
  • Refines the 15 DC elements, making them more specific

Some of these are: Title refinement: Alternative

Date refinement: Created

Date.Issued Date.Modified


Relation refined: Is Version Of

Is Part Of

Is Format Of

  • QDC includes recommended encoding schemes which help in the interpretation of the element value (eg LCSH)
xml extensible markup language
XML – Extensible Markup Language
  • Is not a metadata format itself, but can be used to express metadata formats
  • a language container: a ‘metalanguage’
  • a W3C – WWW Consortium standard
  • XML tags have no predefined meaning.
  • XML is a syntax for data structure standard creation
  • A flexible text format, important for data exchange on the Web
  • Unlike HTML it does not specify how to display data on the Web (bold, color, etc). That is done through XSLT – Extensive Stylesheet Language transformations.
example of a simple xml record
Example of a simple XML record

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!-- Edited with XML Spy v2006 ( -->





<body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body>


same xml record with an error
Same XML record with an error

The XML record is transformed using XSLT – a stylesheet language for XML - to display it on the Web. The record has to be well formed and has to be validated, otherwise it can’t be displayed….

mappings and crosswalks between metadata formats
Mappings and crosswalks between metadata formats
  • Crosswalks facilitate moving metadata from one scheme to another; mapping of the data elements, semantics, and syntax.
  • They facilitate interoperability and exchange of metadata.
  • Like translating from one language to another
  • Examples at :


  • Difficulties betweens crosswalks of different metadata formats (field definitions)
  • Best practices for standardized records

one size does not fit all
One size does not fit all
  • No single standard is suitable for all purposes
  • Proliferation of standards
  • Obvious advantages exist to having a single standard for cataloging both digital and non-digital materials
searching empowered by metadata
Searching empowered by metadata
  • Through analysis of resource content
  • Appropriate thesauri
  • Designated fields for data exchange and migration
  • Richer than keyword
metadata types
  • Descriptive (such as author, title, abstract); it is the most standardized -- MARC, MODS, DC
  • Structural (such as how resource is put together, pages, chapters) –METS (Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard), XML
  • Administrative (such as technical information, file type, track history of creation and changes, access/rights management and intellectual property, preservation metadata to archive the resource) –ERMI (Electronic Resource Management Initiative), PREMIS (PREservation Metadata Implementation Strategies)
descriptive metadata type format marc21
Descriptive metadata type/format: MARC21
  • Machine Readable Cataloging record, an international communicationstandard, ISO 2709
  • Originally designed in the late 1960’s to aid in the transfer of bibliographic data onto magnetic tape, and to replace the printed catalog cards with electronic form
  • MARC is not a cataloging code
  • A carrier for bibliographic information, such as titles, names, subjects, notes, publication information, and physical descriptions of objects
  • Standard for exchanging bibliographic, holdings and other data between libraries.
  • Allows for data elements for different types of material: a foundation that most library catalogs are built on.
catalog this using marc21 formats
Catalog this! Using MARC21 formats!
  • Books
  • Continuing resources (serials)
  • Integrating resources
  • Maps
  • Music (scores)
  • Sound recordings
  • Visual materials
  • Electronic resources
  • Mixed materials
levels of description full minimal and in between
Levels of description: full, minimal and in-between
  • Describe a book
  • Describe a collection, a whole set, separate volumes in the set
  • Describe a photograph
  • Describe a chapter in a book
  • Describe a video
  • Describe an electronic resource, a digital object
describing information on the web
Describing information on the web:
  • MARC is designed for use in library catalogs, by automated library systems, not for use on the web
  • MARC can be transformed to be displayed on the web: MARCXML, MODS
  • To describe other objects on the web: use Dublin Core metadata standard, use XML, use TEI for text, EAD for digital finding aids, etc
  • A framework for working with MARC data in an XML environment
  • Complete MARC record is represented in XML, no loss of data
  • Can convert back to MARC easily, no loss of data
  • All MARC formats (book, map, music, etc) are supported
  • Customizable for local solutions
marc record
MARC record

LDR 01281cam 2200337 a 4500

001 ocm25508902\

003 OCoLC

005 20060530010502.0

008 920219s1993\\\\caua\\\j\\\\\\000\0\eng\\

010 \\$a 92005291


020 \\$a0152038655 :$c{dollar}15.95042 \\$alcac

050 00$aPS3537.A618$bA88 1993

082 00$a811/.52$220

049 \\$aYUSS

marc record continued
MARC record continued

100 1\$a Sandburg, Carl,$d1878-1967.

245 10$a Arithmetic /$cCarl Sandburg ; illustrated as an anamorphic adventure by Ted Rand.

250 \\$a 1st ed.

260 \\$a San Diego :$bHarcourt Brace Jovanovich,$cc1993.

300 \\$a 1 v. (unpaged) :$bill. (some col.) ;$c26 cm.

500 \\$a One Mylar sheet included in pocket.

520 \\$a A poem about numbers and their characteristics. Features anamorphic, or distorted, drawings which can be restored to normal by viewing from a particular angle or by viewing the image's reflection in the provided Mylar cone.

end of marc record
End of MARC record…

650 \0$a Arithmetic $vJuvenile poetry.

650 \0$a Children's poetry, American.

650 \1$a Arithmetic $vPoetry.

650 \1$a American poetry.

650 \1$a Arithmetic $v Poetry.

650 \1$a American poetry.

650 \1$a Visual perception.

7001\$a Rand, Ted, $e ill.

marcxml example
MARCXML: Example
  • Where MARC exists within the world of XML

-XML - just a different way of encoding MARC

  • Tags are preserved in their semantics
  • 1:1 mapping
  • No loss of data during conversion
  • Extensible – can be customized
mods metadata objects description schema
MODS: Metadata Objects Description Schema
  • XML-based descriptive metadata standard
  • A subset of data elements are derived from MARC21, uses language-based tags
  • Highly compatible with MARC21, (but not a MARC replacement)
  • Richer than Dublin Core
  • Uses natural language tags rather than numeric tags
  • Accommodates special requirements for digital resources
marc limitations in the digital environment
MARC limitations in the digital environment
  • Lack of expandability due to rigorous record formats (goes back to the production of printed card catalog cards)
  • Weaknesses in describing bibliographic attributes of digitized resources
  • Incompatible with other MARC formats
  • Bibliographic relationships are not easily represented
  • Can’t be processed directly by web applications
so is marc still needed yes
So, is MARC still needed? YES!
  • But it’s one of the metadata standards we can use – not the only one
  • OPAC is not necessarily the “center of discovery”
  • Can be retooled, repurposed, transformed…
  • Still the best way to describe resources for discovery, identification and retrieval in traditional library catalogs (like Voyager)
marc21 standards
MARC21 standards:
  • MARC21 Format for Bibliographic Data
  • MARC21 Format for Authority Data
  • MARC21 Format for Holdings Data
  • MARC21 Format for Classification Data
  • MARC21 Format for Community Data
bibliographic record type
Bibliographic record type:
  • A carrier primarily for bibliographic information about printed or manuscript textual materials, maps, music, serials, visual materials, electronic resources
  • ..or any source of information which can be represented in a catalog record
authority records
Authority records:
  • Are a carrier for information concerning the authorized forms of names, titles, subjects (and subject divisions) to be used in constructing ACCESS POINTS
  • Describe names and terms which need to be standardized for optimal retrieval of data
  • Include personal, corporate, geographic names and controlled vocabularies
value of authority control
Value of Authority control
  • Most efficient and effective mechanism for optimal retrieval of information
  • Without authority control, access to information can be severely compromised
holdings records
Holdings records:
  • Are a carrier for holdings information for three types of bibliographic items:
  • Single-part
  • Multipart
  • Serial (may include copy-specific information, information needed for local processing, maintenance, preservation or version information)
  • Indicate the number and locations of copies of a resource cataloged in the bibliographic record
classification records
Classification records:
  • A carrier for information about classification numbers and the captions associated with them that are formulated according to a specific authoritative classification scheme
community information records
Community Information records:
  • A carrier for descriptions of non-bibliographic resources that fulfill the information needs of a community.
  • In the beginning different flavors….MARC, USMARC, CANMARC, UKMARC, AUSMARC…harmonization  MARC21
  • Information is stored in a consistent form
  • Data is manipulated by a computer
  • Allows for communication between systems
  • Accommodates extensive data elements
  • A highly complex communication or data structure standard that provides concise data management
marc has three components
MARC has three components:
  • Record structure (based ISO2709 and ANSI Z39.2)
  • Content designation – these are the codes used to tag elements of data within a MARC record
  • Data content of a record – the object we are coding, a book, a map, etc. according to data formatting standards (AACR, LCSH, LC Classification, DDC, etc.)
marc supporting documentation
MARC supporting documentation
  • Character sets:

- MARC-8 (8-bit encoding)

- UCS/UNICODE UTF-8 (8/16 bit encoding)

- 15,000+ characters

- Latin, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic, CJK

  • Code lists: countries, geographical, languages, sources, relators

we ve got standards
We’ve got standards!
  • Standards are: a set of rules and guidelines that provide a common framework
  • Aid interoperability
  • ISO – International Organization for Standardization and NISO, W3C, DLF – Digital Library Federation: METS – Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard: OAI – Open Archives Initiative
  • ISBN, ISSN, ISMN (music) are ISO standards
  • ISO/IEC 11179 – IT Metadata Registries (MDR)
  • ISO 2709 Format for information exchange
cataloging standards
Cataloging standards
  • Content standards: AACR (Anglo-American Cataloging Rules) –now in it’s 2nd ed. (AACR2)
  • An international data content standard used by approx. 56 countries around the world for all types of materials collected by libraries. It standardizes the use of MARC
  • Cataloging rules have gone through many iterations responding to changing needs, first ed. In 1967, 1978 2nd ed.
  • Rules in AACR2 cover the description of library materials and also the provision of access points
change is the only constant
Change is the only constant…
  • RDA – Resource Description and Access (not AACR3)
  • “RDA is being developed as a new standard for resource description and access designed for the digital world” – JSC – to be published in 2007
  • Will cover all types of content and media
  • Aligned with FRBR – a conceptual model for how bibliographic databases might be structured (Functional Requirement for Bibliographic Records) and FRAR (Functional Requirement for Authority Records)
  • FRBR identifies and defines: (1) entities of interest to users of bibliographic records; (2) their attributes; and (3) the relationships that operate between them; work (intellectual) being the top hierarchy, then expression, manifestation, and the item
  • Separates recording of data and the presentation of data
some other content standards
Some other content standards
  • DACS - Describing Archives: A Content Standard – (replaces APPM- Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts ). DACS extends Ch. 4 of AACR2.

-- Specific rules for describing archives and illustrates how these rules might be implemented in MARC and EAD format. It includes crosswalks to these and other standards.

-- can be used to describe archival materials at any level of specificity, from the collection to the item level.

  • DCRB – Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books (concordance of rules between DCRB and AACR2)
  • FGDC Content standard
isbd standard
ISBD standard
  • International Standard Bibliographic Descriptions standard - specifies the requirements (a set of rules) for description and identification of information resources
  • These rules organize the bibliographic description of an item in Areas such as: title, statement of responsibility, edition, publication, physical description, series, notes, standard numbers (ISBN, ISSN)
  • It is sequential: title must come first, then author..
isbd punctuation
ISBD punctuation
  • Cataloging rules dictate it
  • Space / space precedes statement of responsibility, $c in title info (tagged 245)

245 04$aThe plays of Oscar Wilde /$cAlan Bird.

(space before $c is system supplied in many software programs)

  • Limited space originally on 3x5 catalog cards, ISBD was governed by saving space
  • These rules are still useful for computer screen displays
classification standards
Classification standards
  • Systems of organizing and coding library materials according to their related subject matters
  • Taxonomic classification – placing the object into a category or a subject index,
  • List of subject headings – controlled vocabularies eg, LCSH – an integral part of bibliographic control and improved searching accuracy
  • Classification schemes - eg LC, DDC
  • Assignment of a class number (according to rules)
library management systems
Library Management Systems
  • also called Integrated Library Systems
  • Built on Database technology (Oracle RDBMS - relational database: all data is stored and retrieved based on relations); and GUI (Graphical User Interface: displays windows, icons through a web browser, ) technology
  • Based on MARC, built on standards, utilizes the MARC format for storage of data
  • Keep track of library materials
  • Have different clients, or modules: Acquisitions, Cataloging, Circulation (keeps track of overdue books), OPAC
  • Through OPAC can reserve copies online through a web interface
  • Endeavor:Voyager is an example – other major ones: Ex Libris:Aleph, Innovative: Millennium, Koha ILS, the only open source library software available (
marc the pillar of the bibliographic record
MARC: the pillar of the bibliographic record
  • Computers can interpret the data in the catalog record
  • Cataloging staff create and edit MARC records
  • Other staff working with MARC21 records need to know how to read, understand, use and interpret the MARC record.
  • Different kinds of bibliographic records
cataloging where it all comes together deciding exactly what it is we are cataloging
Cataloging – where it all comes together: deciding exactly what it is we are cataloging
  • Searching locally and the utilities for copy – no match: create original record
  • Analyzing the resource
  • Using AACR we determine the information we have to provide for the type of material we are cataloging
  • Subject analysis and classification
  • Bibliographic control
  • Coding information into the format required by the MARC standards

(no surprise! If we didn’t code it, you won’t find it!)

copy cataloging or adaptive cataloging
Copy Cataloging or adaptive cataloging:
  • Searching for copy
  • Finding exact match – still might want to edit
  • No exact match, but variant copy – clone record (different edition, etc) – remove all information that does not apply to your resource in hand
  • Follow rules and local procedures for editing

(If you didn’t add it, you won’t find it!)

input standards
Input standards
  • LC has its established input standard for entering bibliographic data in MARC records – Yale practice is to follow LC (in most cases)
  • OCLC also has its own input standard if using OCLC to directly input records
  • Complicated by the varying levels of completeness (fullest, brief, etc) of the record
  • LC:
  • OCLC:
knowledge of marc tells you
Knowledge of MARC tells you:
  • What data elements your database contains
  • How they are indexed – if at all
  • How they can be searched
  • How they are displayed – if at all
marc record format
MARC record format:

Leader: first 24 characters of the record, defines parameters for processing the record

Directory: entries that contain the tag used in variable fields, they are constructed by the computer from the bibliographic record. In communication format the fields are not preceded by tags.

Variable field: variable control field: 00X, fixed length data elements, and variable data field: indicators and subfield codes

the raw marc record
The raw MARC record

01041cam 2200265 a 450000100200000000300040002000 50017000240080041000410100024000820200025001060200 04400131040001800175050002400193082001800217100003 20023524500870026724600360035425000120039026000370 04023000029004395000042004685200220005106500033007 30650001200763^###89048230#/AC/r91^DLC^19911106082 810.9^891101s1990####maua###j######000#0#eng##^##$ a###89048230#/AC/r91^##$a0316107514 :$c$12.95^##$a 0316107506 (pbk.) :$c$5.95 ($6.95 Can.)^##$aDLC$cD LC$dDLC^00$aGV943.25$b.B74 1990^00$a796.334/2$220^ 10$aBrenner, Richard J.,$d1941-^10$aMake the team. $pSoccer :$ba heads up guide to super soccer! /$cR ichard J. Brenner.^30$aHeads up guide to super soc cer.^##$a1st ed.^##$aBoston :$bLittle, Brown,$cc19 90.^##$a127 p. :$bill. ;$c19 cm.^##$a"A Sports ill ustrated for kids book."^##$aInstructions for impr oving soccer skills. Discusses dribbling, heading, playmaking, defense, conditioning, mental attitud e, how to handle problems with coaches, parents, a nd other players, and the history of soccer.^#0$aS occer$vJuvenile literature.^#1$aSoccer.^\

the leader
The Leader:
  • 24 positions from 00 to 23 that provides information to the computer for the processing of the record.

leader encoding level 00 17 example
Leader: Encoding level 00/17 example
  • Blank (#) Full level – LC standard
  • 1 Full level material not examined
  • 2 Less than full level, material not examined
  • 3 abbreviated level
  • 4 core level
  • 5 partial (preliminary) level
  • 7 minimal level
  • 8 prepublication level (CIP)
  • u unknown
  • z not applicable
  • I Full level – OCLCstandard
  • K Minimal level – OCLC standard

Codes indicate the fullness of the bibliographic information in the record.

parts of a marc record
Parts of a MARC record
  • Fields and tags
  • Indicators
  • Delimiters
  • Fixed fields
  • Variable fields
fields subfields and delimiters
Fields subfields and delimiters:
  • Fields – can be mandatory, required if applicable or optional
  • Can also be repeatable (subfields also)
  • Subfields are marked by subfield codes and delimiters (the smallest logical units in a variable field) organize the information within a given field – eg. 245 00 $a Money : $b a necessary evil – where $b represents the subtitle. Subfields codes are letters or numbers (eg. 650 $2 example: $2 Source of heading or term: 650 \7
  • Subfields are specific to each type of field and are controlled by content standards
  • delimiters can be represented by different characters: double dagger, a $, a # sign
  • Each field is represented by a 3-digit tag, which identifies the field – eg 245 represents the title information
  • OPAC labels display names of the field – they are customizable
  • Each tag is followed by two indicators, their values may range from 0-9
  • Some fields use both indicators
  • Some fields use one character position only
  • Some fields use none, the position is blank and is “undefined”
  • Supply information about the field for indexing
functions of indicators
Functions of Indicators
  • Nonfiling characters - 245 04 $a The Adventures of Safety Frog. $p Fire safety $h [videorecording] / $c Century 21 Video, Inc. VERY IMPORTANT!
  • Control of notes and added entries - 246 30 $a Fire safety $h [videorecording]

  • Display constant control – eg. first indicator display a note or not

  • Source of information/thesaurus – eg. LCSH 650 \0 if limit by searching only LCSH
  • Further qualification of field content
control fields 001 006
Control fields 001-006

  • 005 – system created, can tell you date and time record was last saved, down to a tenth of a second – you can see if you saved it recently or not
  • Note that each 006 represents a material type (tabs in Voyager)
007 physical description fixed field
007 - Physical Description Fixed Field:
  • Contains special information about the physical characteristics in a coded form. The information may represent the whole item or parts of an item such as accompanying material

007 example from oclc manual
007 example (from OCLC manual):
  • For example, you are cataloging a kit that has: 25 activity cards, 60 artifacts, 3 books, 3 filmstrips, 1 learning guide, 25 study prints, 2 sound cassettes and 14 transparencies. The activity cards, filmstrips, study prints and transparencies share the same physical characteristics, respectively.
  • Use a separate 007 field for each group of materials (i.e., an 007 for the 25 activity cards, an 007 for the 3 filmstrips, etc.). Since the sound cassettes are not associated with projected material, use a separate 007 field for the sound cassettes.
  • 007k ‡b o ‡d c ‡e o007g ‡b o ‡d u ‡e j ‡h f007k ‡b f ‡d m ‡e o ‡f c 007s ‡b s ‡d l ‡e u ‡f n ‡g j ‡h l ‡i c ‡n e007g ‡b t ‡d c ‡e j ‡h v
  • 300 25 activity cards, 60 artifacts, 3 books, 3 filmstrips, 1 learning guide, 25 study prints, 2 sound cassettes, 14 transparencies; ‡c in container 30 x 25 x 13 cm.

008 fixed length data elements
008 – Fixed-length data elements
  • Otherwise known as the “Fixed Field Codes”
  • Contains 40 character positions (00-39) that provide coded information about the record as a whole and about special bibliographic aspects of the item being cataloged. These coded data elements are potentially useful for retrieval and data management purposes.

fixed fields are used in limits of the opac
Fixed fields are used in “limits” of the OPAC
  • Limit feature allows users to restrict results of their searches by:
  • Language (character position 35-37)
  • Collection
  • Date
  • Medium
  • Item Type

(note:”More limits” must be set BEFORE entering search terms)

01x 04x number and code fields
01X-04X – Number and code fields
  • 010-048
  • 010 – LC Control Number or LCCN, since 2001 ‘normalized’, pre-2001 had prefixes, like sn89-4567 now entered as $a sn89004567. Invalid LCCNs are entered in $z of the 010 field.
  • 020 – ISBN
  • 022 – ISSN
  • 024 – Other standard identifiers, like a UPC: Universal Product Code barcode
  • 028 – Publisher number, (identifies videorecordings, printed music, sound recordings, etc)
01x 04x number and code fields cont
01X-04X – Number and code fields cont…
  • 035 – System control number, like OCLC $a (OCoLC)12345678 (8 digits)
  • 037 – Source of Acquisition (mostly used for subscription information for serials)
  • 040 – Cataloging source – MARC code that identifies the institution that created the record in $a YUS, $c that input record, $d edited the record.
  • 041 – Language codes, when 008 is not enough, for more than one language: eg. $aeng$afre$ager

Note 546 field for the user: Text is in English, French and German.

01x 04x number and code fields80
01X-04X – Number and code fields
  • 046 – Special code dates, information that can’t be recorded in 008 Dates, for example a corrected date
  • 047 – Form of musical composition code for printed or manuscript music, or sound recording when one code doesn’t express the work, 008 18/19: Comp: mu and 047 $a or $a ct (both oratorio and cantata)
  • 049 – Local holdings field, OCLC uses for institution code of the library, copy holdings, volume, part, year designation. – OCLC recon example
05x 09x classification and call number fields
05X-09X – Classification and call number fields
  • 050- Library of Congress call number (LC)
  • 082 – Dewey Decimal Classification number (DDC)
  • 090 – Locally assigned LC-type call number
  • 092 - Locally assigned Dewey call number
  • 096 - Locally assigned NLM-type call number
  • 098 – Other type class number
  • 099 – Local free text call number
marc21 variable fields by tag groups
MARC21 Variable Fields by tag groups

00X Control information, numbers, codes

0XX Variable fields, general information

1XX Main entry

2XX Titles, edition, imprint, publication information

3XX Physical description

4XX Series statement (as on item)

5XX Notes

6XX Subject entries

7XX Added entries other than subject or series

8XX Series added entries (authoritative forms)

9XX Local use fields

access points or headings under authority control
Access points or headings – under authority control:
  • 1XX - Main entry
  • 4XX - Series statement (as on item)
  • 6XX – Subject entries
  • 7XX - Added entries other than subject or series
  • 8XX - Series added entries (authoritative forms)
parallel tag construction
Parallel tag construction:

X00 – Personal names: 100, 600, 700, 800

X10 – Corporate names: 110, 610, 710, 810

X11 – Conference names: 111, 611, 711, 811

X30 – Uniform titles: 630, 730, 830

(An OPAC personal name search will find 100, 600, 700, 800 through indexes set up)

1xx fields 100 110 111 130
1XX fields – 100, 110, 111, 130
  • Main entry fields (headings) for the resource being cataloged, constructed according to rules in AACR2
  • Not repeatable
  • First indicators have important meanings
  • Second indicator undefined
  • Have subfields
  • Source of information is important

x00 fields 100 600 700 800
X00 fields – 100, 600, 700, 800
  • First indicator specifies type of name: 0=forename
  • 1=surname
  • 3=family name
  • Second indicator is undefined
  • List of subfield codes allowed listed under each field
1xx examples
1XX examples:

Personal name:

100 1# $a Gregory, Ruth W.

$q (Ruth Wilhelme),

$d 1910-

Corporate name:

110 2# $a Yale University.

$b Library.

Meeting name:

111 2# $a International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata for e-Communities

$d(2002 :

$c Florence, Italy)

Uniform title main entry:

130 0# $a Bible.

$p O.T.

$p Psalms.

110 authority record
110 authority record

LC Control Number:n 80008747 HEADING:Yale University. Library

00000690cz a2200193n 450



008800128n| acannaab |a ana

010__ |a n 80008747

035__ |a (DLC)n 80008747

040__ |a DLC |c DLC |d DLC |d CtY

1102_ |a Yale University. |b Library

4102_ |a Sterling Memorial Library

4102_ |a Yale University. |b Sterling Memorial Library

5102_ |w a |a Yale College (1718-1887). |b Library

670__ |a The Encouragers of the art of printing, 1966: |b p. 4 (Sterling Memorial Library at Yale University)

675__ |a Yale Col. Library. Catalogue of books in the Library of Yale-College, New-Haven, 1791.

952__ |a RETRO

953__ |a xx00 |b ba30

240 uniform title
240 – Uniform title
  • The uniform title for an item when the bibliographic description is entered under a main entry field that contains a personal (field 100), corporate (110), or meeting (111) name.

245 title statement
245 – Title statement
  • Mandatory
  • Not repeatable
  • Indicators are important for indexing
  • If 1XX present: first indicator set to 1
  • If no 1XX present: first indicator set to 0
  • Order of subfields – important


245 00$a[Man smoking at window].

245 03$aLe Bureau$h[filmstrip] =$bLa Oficina DasBüro.

245 10$aStatistics :$bfacts or fiction

245 04$aThe Year book of general medicine.(bib#3527893)

246 varying form of title
246 – Varying form of title
  • A form of the title appearing on different parts of an item or a portion of the title proper, or an alternative form of the title when the form differs significantly from the title contained in field 245
  • Required if applicable
  • Repeatable
  • Indicators important in indexing

247 former title in pre aacr2 records
247 – Former title in pre-AACR2 records
  • In Latest entry serial records, where current title is in 245 and each former title is entered in a separate 247 fields
  • 247 is also used by Conser (Module 31) for Remote Access Electronic Serials (Online serials)
250 edition statement
250 – Edition statement
  • Information relating to the edition of a work as determined by applicable cataloging rules.

Example: 250 // 2nd ed.

250// Canadian ed. =$bÉd. canadienne.

  • Use abbreviations from Appendix B. and numbers from App. C of AACR2
  • Can supply (add edition in brackets if not on piece, but obvious).
260 publication distribution etc imprint
260 – Publication, distribution, etc. (Imprint)
  • Contains publication, printing, distribution, issue, release, or production information of a resource.
  • Names as they appear (without prepositions)
  • Name of publisher – 260 $b is not under authority control, in OPAC use a keyword search


C. Scribner’s Sons

Chas. Scribner’s Sons

Charles Scribner’s Sons –BUT if added entry exists for the publisher: 710 20 $a Chas. Scribner’s Sons, it is under bibliographic control. (610 if item is about this publisher)

270 address
270 - Address
  • Contains an address (as well as electronic access data such as telephone, fax, etc, associated with the bibliographic item.
3xx physical description etc
3XX – Physical description, etc.

  • Most frequently used for print:
  • 300 – Physical description


  • 310 – Current frequency for serials
  • 321 – Former frequency
  • 362 – Dates or sequential designation (indicators: formatted, unformatted notes; relationship with dates in fixed fields: Example:
4xx series statement fields
4XX - Series statement fields:

  • Separate works but related by a common collective title or topic, issued together in a group by publishers
  • Classed together or classed separately
  • Series traced or not
  • 490 relationship with 8XX
  • Recent LC practice controversy….stay tuned!
5xx notes area
5XX - Notes area
  • Use notes from any part of the resource
  • Prescribed order of notes
  • Can be very useful in distinguishing records
  • 590 is used for local notes

  • Some note fields ‘pair up’ with other fields, eg 041 + 546; 580+78X;
6xx subject access fields
6XX - Subject Access fields
  • 600 – Personal name subject added entry
  • 610 – Corporate name subject added entry
  • 611 – Meeting name subject added entry
  • 630 – Uniform title subject added entry
  • 650 – Topical term subject added entry
  • 651 – Geographic name subject added entry
  • 655 – Genre/Form subject added entry
  • 69X – locally defined (eg. 692 in Beinecke: 692 14 |a Duru, Hippolyte, |d d. 1884 |x Binding.)
70x 75x added entry fields
70X-75X - Added entry fields
  • Contain a name and/or title or a term that provides access to a bibliographic record that is not provided through main entry (1XX), subject access (6XX), series statement (4XX), series added entry (8XX), or title (20X-24X) fields. The roman numeral and the word Title: that precede an added entry field in some displays are not carried in the MARC record. They may be generated based on the field tag.
  • Most often used: 700, 710, 711, 730, 740 controlled fields (but 720 is uncontrolled name)
76x 78x linking entry fields
76X-78X - Linking entry fields
  • Contain information that identifies other related bibliographic items. Each of the linking entry fields specifies a different relationship between the target item described in the record and a related item.

  • Many used for serials, some also for e-resources
  • As with other fields, the coding of indicators and subfields are important!
8xx series added entries fields
8XX -Series added entries fields
  • Fields 800-830 contain a name/title or a title used as a series added entry when the series statement is contained in field 490 (Series Statement) or field 500

841 88x holdings location alternate graphics etc fields
841- 88X - Holdings, Location, Alternate Graphics, etc. fields
  • Contain descriptions for data elements which are an integral part of the MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data and data elements which may appear either in bibliographic records or in separate MARC holdings records.
  • 850 – for minimal holdings data in bib
  • 852 – for more extensive holdings data in MFHD
  • 853 ->880 found in MFHD
  • 856 – Electronic location and access to locate e-resources
9xx local fields
9XX – Local fields
  • Any locally defined field

Examples from Orbis:

927 - //$a 9808R – when record was sent to RLIN and/or OCLC -- now obsolete

928 - //$a ACOC1000 – was used to send record out for authority work– now obsolete

948 - //$a OCLC RECON – still in use

database errors and their consequences
Database errors and their consequences….

Can’t retrieve something? It’s likely that it’s because of……

  • Typos
  • Miscoded Indicators
  • Errors in access points
  • …in call numbers (Call numbers come from the Holdings record, the MFHD, not from the bib record)
  • Miscoded holdings information, etc…..
some eye catching slipups
Some eye-catching slipups

Bib#2994152 (apostr. Missing)

Bib#5954198 650 the ‘two’ wars….(PCC record)

mistakes in the mfhd
Mistakes in the MFHD….

Voyager Holdings record: #6849742

866 41 $8 a 1968-1969 line

Holdings record #7326417 852 7 1

Holdings record: #1155135 852 71 $b sml

not mistakes yet one wonders about these subject headings
Not mistakes, yet one wonders about these subject headings….

One-leg resting position

Baboons – Congresses

Hamlet -- English translations

God—Audio recordings

a brief review exercise
A brief review exercise:
  • On page 29 of your booklet

some selected useful websites
Some selected useful websites:
thank you


Any Questions?