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Maintaining academic integrity in online courses. Clint Brooks, M.Ed. NorthWest Arkansas Community College. Academic Dishonesty and Academic Integrity. “…acts which may subvert or compromise the integrity of the educational process” (NWACC, 2006, 154). What is Academic Dishonesty? .

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maintaining academic integrity in online courses

Maintaining academic integrity in online courses

Clint Brooks, M.Ed.

NorthWest Arkansas Community College

slide3
“…acts which may subvert or compromise the integrity of the educational process” (NWACC, 2006, 154)

What is Academic Dishonesty?

slide4
Includes:

“Copying from another student’s paper during an examination.”

“Plagiarism”

“Substituting for another person …to take an examination”

(NWACC, 2006, 154)

What is Academic Dishonesty?

why is academic integrity so important
“…two out of three students admitted to having engaged in at least one of 14 questionable academic behaviors” (McCabe & Trevino, 1996) Why is Academic Integrity so important?
why is academic integrity so important7
Institutional integrity

Ethical integrity of students

Professional integrity of disciplines

Why is Academic Integrity so important?
academic integrity and distance learning
“…both students and faculty believe it is easier to cheat in a distancelearning class, …” (Kennedy, et. al.; 2000) Academic Integrity and Distance Learning
academic integrity and distance learning9
40% admit to helping other students with online exams.

Only 13.7% admit to helping other students during lecture exams.

(Lanier, 2006, 253)

Academic Integrity and Distance Learning
cihe commission on institutions of higher education dl best practices
“When examinations are employed … they take place in circumstances that include firm student identification.” (CIHE, 13)CIHE (Commission on Institutions of Higher Education) DL Best Practices
institutional approaches to academic dishonesty
Faculty Reporting

“Grading Sanctions”

“Admonition or Probation”

“Suspension or Expulsion”

(NWACC, 2006, 155)

Institutional Approaches to Academic Dishonesty
do no harm
Fear of harming students’ careers

“perceptions of complicated disciplinary processes,”

“confronting and reporting student cheating”

“These factors may lead faculty to ignore or side-step student cheating,”

(Bertram Gallant and Drinan, 2006, p. 845)

Do no harm
control identify monitor
Proctoring

Picture identification

Signed confirmation

Time limits

These tactics are not negative, in and of themselves

Control, Identify, Monitor
prevention and student ethical responsibility
Honor Codes

Student and Faculty Responsibilities

10 Principles of Academic Integrity for Faculty (McCabe & Pavela, 2004, 12-14)

Prevention and Student Ethical Responsibility
10 principles of academic integrity for faculty mccabe pavela
Recognize and affirm academic integrity as a core institutional value.

Foster a lifelong commitment to learning.

Affirm the role of teacher as guide and mentor.

10 Principles of Academic Integrity for Faculty (McCabe & Pavela)
10 principles of academic integrity for faculty mccabe pavela18
Help students understand the potential of the Internet--and how that potential can be lost if online resources are used for fraud, theft, and deception.10 Principles of Academic Integrity for Faculty (McCabe & Pavela)
10 principles of academic integrity for faculty mccabe pavela19
Encourage student responsibility for academic integrity.

Clarify expectations for students.

Develop fair and creative forms of assessment.

10 Principles of Academic Integrity for Faculty (McCabe & Pavela)
10 principles of academic integrity for faculty mccabe pavela20
Reduce opportunities to engage in academic dishonesty.

Respond to academic dishonesty when it occurs.

Help define and support campus-wide academic-integrity standards.

10 Principles of Academic Integrity for Faculty (McCabe & Pavela)
writing
Identifiable via searches

Identifiable via style and consistency

Writing
writing the challenge
“Many websites provide written papers including http://www.schoolsucks.com and http://www.cheathouse.com.” (Lanier, 2006, 247)

“AllFreeEssays.com … Asian Grade … School Sucks …TermPaperGenie…” (Weisbard, 2007)

Writing – The Challenge
writing identifying via searching
most universities will have sizable amounts of plagiarism occurring in their subjects using electronic means to download text from the internet.

(O’Connor, 2003)

Writing – Identifying via Searching
writing identifying via searching25
It is suspected that this is the tip of the iceberg in that any copying from textbooks is, at this time, unable to be detected

(O’Connor, 2003)

Writing – Identifying via Searching
writing identifying via searching26
Services

Turnitin.com

Controversies

Presumption of guilt

Copyright of student papers

Writing – Identifying via Searching
writing identifying via style and consistency
“Inconsistent writing style”

“Use of language”

“Datedness”

“Repetition”

(University of Tasmania, 2006)

Writing – Identifying via Style and Consistency
project based assessment
Web-based projects

Multimedia projects

Mailed projects

Experiential projects

Project-based Assessment
project based assessment31
“With project-based assessment, the dangers … are diminished the more individually the project is tailored to the resources used in the course, the student's individual interests, and the use of intermittent ‘checkpoints’” (Abbott, et. al., 2000)Project-based Assessment
collaborative assessment
“These methods constitute very powerful means of developing generic skills required by employers such as oral and written communication skills, group management and the ability to evaluate written and oral presentations critically.” (Hargreaves, 1997) Collaborative Assessment
online testing conditions
Time

Attempts

Randomization

Proctoring (including off-site proctoring: NCTA – National College Testing Association - http://www.ncta-testing.org/cctc/)

Online Testing Conditions
other
Vary assessment methods

Gear assessments to subject matter and discipline

Individualize assessments

Other
blackboard ce 4 137
Assignments

Clarifies expectations

Opportunity for written or project based assessment

Opportunity for experiential assessment

Blackboard CE (4.1)
blackboard ce 4 139
Discussions

Opportunity for regular student writing

Teacher as guide and mentor

Collaborative environment

Blackboard CE (4.1)
blackboard ce 4 141
E-Mail

Opportunity for regular student writing

Teacher as guide and mentor

Individualized interaction

Blackboard CE (4.1)
blackboard ce 4 143
Quiz Tool

Time Limits

Selective Release

Multiple Attempts

Randomization

Security

Blackboard CE (4.1)
blackboard ce 4 145
Presentations/Web pages

Opportunity for creative assessment

Opportunity for collaborative assessment

Opportunity for experiential assessment

Opportunity for project based assessment

Blackboard CE (4.1)
references
Abbott, Lynda, Siskovic, Holly, Nogues, Val, and Williams, Joanne G. “Learner Assessment in Multimedia Instruction: Considerations for the Instructional Designer.” 2000. < http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~lynda_abbott/SITEentry3223.html>.

Betram Gallant, Tricia, and Drinan, Patrick. “Organizational Theory and Student Cheating: Explanation, Responses, and Strategies.”Journal of Higher Education. Vol. 77 Issue 5 (Sep/Oct 2006): 839-860

References
references48
CIHE (Commission on Institutions of Higher Education). Best Practices for Electronically Offered Degree and Certificate Programs. 13

Grijalva, Therese C., Nowell, Clifford, and Kerkvliet, Joe. “Academic Honesty and Online Courses.” College Student Journal. Vol. 40 Issue 1 (Mar 2006): 180-185

Hargreaves, D.J. “Student learning and assessment are inextricably linked.” European Journal of Engineering Education; Vol. 22 Issue 4 (Dec 1997): p401, 9p

References
references49
Kennedy, Kristen, Nowak, Sheri, Raghuraman, Renuka, Thomas, Jennifer, and Davis, Stephen F. “ACADEMIC DISHONESTY AND DISTANCELEARNING: STUDENT AND FACULTY VIEWS.”College Student Journal. Vol. 34 Issue 2 (June 2000): 309, 6p

Lanier, Mark M. “Academic Integrity and Distance Learning*.” Journal of Criminal Justice Education; Vol. 17 Issue 2, (Sep 2006): 244-261

References
references50
McCabe, Donald L., Trevino Linda Klebe. “What we know about cheating in college.” Change; Vol. 28 Issue 1 (Jan/Feb 1996): 28.

McCabe, Donald L., Trevino Linda Klebe. “Ten [Updated] Principles of AcademicIntegrity: How Faculty Can Foster Student Honesty.” Change; Vol. 36 Issue 3 (May/June 2004): 12-14.

NorthWest Arkansas Community College. “Academic Dishonesty.” NorthWest Arkansas Community College Catalog; 2006. 154-155

References
references51
O’Connor, Steve. “Cheating and electronic plagiarism – scope, consequences and detection.” CAVAL Staff Publications. 2003. CAVAL. May 2003. <http://www.caval.edu.au/about/staffpub/docs/Cheating%20and%20electronic%20plagiarism%20-%20scope,%20consequences%20and%20detection%20EDUCASUE%20May%202003.doc>. References
references52
University of Tasmania. “How to identify academic dishonesty.” University of Tasmania Teaching and Learning Website. 2006. University of Tasmania. May, 10, 2006.

Weisbard, Phyllis Holman. “STUDENT CHEATING, PLAGIARISM (AND OTHER QUESTIONABLE PRACTICES), THE INTERNET, AND OTHER ELECTRONIC RESOURCES.” Women's Studies Librarian's Website - University of Wisconsin System.2007. UW System Women's Studies Librarian. <http://www.library.wisc.edu/libraries/WomensStudies/plag.htm>.

References
contact information
Clint BrooksDirector of Distance LearningNorthWest Arkansas Community CollegeOne College DriveBentonville, AR 72704cbrooks@nwacc.edu(479)619-4382Contact Information