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Obtain and Label Blood Specimens - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Obtain and Label Blood Specimens. Introduction. Venipuncture is a technique that permits access to a vein so that a needle or catheter can be inserted, usually to withdraw a blood specimen or initiate an intravenous infusion

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Presentation Transcript
introduction
Introduction
  • Venipuncture is a technique that permits access to a vein so that a needle or catheter can be inserted, usually to withdraw a blood specimen or initiate an intravenous infusion
  • Venipuncture is a sterile procedure since the integrity of the skin is broken
terms and definitions
Terms and Definitions
  • Venipuncture
  • Palpate
  • Antecubital fossa
  • Anticoagulant
  • Hematoma
veins used for drawing blood

Antecubital Area Vessels

Cephalic Vein

Median Cubital Vein

Basilic Vein

Veins Used for Drawing Blood
venipuncture procedure
Venipuncture Procedure
  • Universal precautions - hand wash & gloves
  • Strict adherence to the sharps policy
  • Verify the request to obtain specimen
  • Check the physician's orders
  • Select the proper specimen tube/s
  • Prepare label(s)
  • Perform a patient care hand wash/don gloves
slide6

Stamp Label With Patient’s Addresograph Plate

20 000-00-0000

DP 210-221-4450 A1401TMC

GAVIN, JAMES

07DEC55 M USA AD ENL

SFC HHC 2/505th PIR

TMC-OUTPATIENT RECORDS, FBNC

gather equipment
Gather Equipment
  • Constricting band
  • Vacutainer holder or Syringe
  • Sterile disposable double-ended needle or Butterfly or Hypodermic needle
  • Betadine or alcohol wipe or sponge
  • Protective pad (chux)
  • Sterile 2 x 2-inch gauze sponge(s)
  • Band-Aid
assemble holder needle
Assemble Holder & Needle
  • Put short end of needle into threaded hole in vacutainer holder
  • Screw tightly using clockwise motion
insert the tube into the holder
Insert the Tube into the Holder
  • Insert stoppered end of the tube into holder
  • Do not push tube beyond the guideline
  • Inspect the needle for barbs, corrosion
identify patient
Identify Patient
  • Explain the procedure and purpose
  • Ask patient about allergies (i.e., iodine or alcohol).
  • Position the patient - sitting or lying
  • Never draw blood from a standing patient.
  • Position protective pad
apply constricting band
Apply Constricting Band
  • Apply with enough pressure to stop venous return
  • A radial pulse should be felt
  • Place latex tubing around limb about 2 inches above venipuncture site
  • If a commercial band is used, wrap it around limb and secure by overlapping velcro ends
apply constricting band13
Apply Constricting Band
  • Instruct patient to clench and unclench his fist several times to trap blood and distend veins
  • Avoid veins that are infected, injured, irritated, or have an IV running distally.
palpate selected vein
Palpate Selected Vein
  • Palpate along length of vein with index finger
  • Vein should have a spongy feel
  • Clean the skin
  • Do not re-palpate the vein after cleansing the skin.
prepare the puncture site
Prepare the Puncture Site
  • Cleanse area with betadine or alcohol using a circular motion
  • Do not touch the area once cleansed
prepare to puncture the vein
Prepare to Puncture the Vein
  • Remove protective cover from needle
  • Position needle in line with vein and grasp patient's arm below entry point with free hand
  • Place thumb of free hand 1 inch below entry site and pull skin taut toward hand
puncture the vein

15 ° to 30 °

Puncture the Vein
  • Align needle bevel up
  • Pierce skin at a 15° to 30 ° angle
  • Decrease angle until parallel to skin surface, then pierce vein
  • If needle is withdrawn above skin surface, do not attempt venipuncture again with the same needle
puncture vein
Puncture Vein
  • If unsuccessful
    • Release the constricting band
    • Place 2 x 2 gauze sponge over site
    • Quickly withdraw the needle and instruct the patient to elevate arm slightly and keeping the arm fully extended apply pressure to the site for 2 to 3 minutes.
    • Notify supervisor before attempting another venipuncture
single tube collections
Single Tube Collections
  • When the tube is nearly full release the tourniquet
  • Remove the tube from the holder
  • DO NOT withdraw the needle before the constricting band is released
multiple tube collections
Multiple Tube Collections
  • When the Tube Stops Filling Pull It Out of the holder
  • After the last tube stops filling remove from the holder
  • Release the tourniquet
  • DO NOT withdraw the needle before the tourniquet is released
complete the procedure
Complete the Procedure
  • Place 2 x 2 sponge over venipuncture site
  • Withdraw the needle smoothly and quickly
  • Immediately apply pressure to the site
  • Have patient elevate arm and apply pressure to site
complete the procedure22
Complete the Procedure
  • If tube contains an anticoagulant or other additive, gently invert tube several times to mix with blood
  • Apply a Band-Aid to the venipuncture site
  • DO NOT unscrew needle from sleeve with hands
  • DO NOT recap needle
  • Dispose of needle into sharps
patient comfort and safety
Patient Comfort and Safety
  • Remove protective pad
  • Roll down patient's sleeve
  • If patient is in bed reposition and raise side rails
  • Remove all the equipment from area
  • Dispose of used supplies
  • Store reusable equipment and dispose of needle IAW local sharps SOP
  • Remove gloves and wash hands
administrative duties
Administrative Duties
  • Check and complete laboratory form IAW local SOP
  • Apply prepared label(s)
  • Document procedure IAW local SOP
summary
Summary
  • If venipuncture is done smoothly and properly, there should be little pain for the patient and little risk to medical personnel
  • The procedural steps are designed to ensure a properly drawn specimen
  • With practice, obtaining a blood specimen can become a smooth routine