IMAPS Global Business CouncilRoadmap Process “The Road Ahead”
The GBC Roadmap Team • This Roadmap Process presentation was prepared by these members of the IMAPS Global Business Council & National Technology Council: • Steve Adamson (firstname.lastname@example.org) • Justin Blount (Justin.M.Blount@usa.dupont.com) • Laurie Roth (email@example.com) • Lee Smith (firstname.lastname@example.org) • Andy Strandjord (email@example.com) • Jie Xue (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Topics • Where does IMAPS fit in with the ITRS and iNEMI Roadmaps? • What is the ITRS Roadmap and how does it work? • What is the iNEMI Roadmap and how does it work? • How does IMAPS interact with this Roadmap Process? • Why IMAPS should be involved. • IMAPS Areas of Focus. • If you are already familiar with the ITRS & iNEMI Roadmap Process, skip to slide 19 • The Roadmaps: • ITRS • iNEMI • Summary IMAPS Areas of Focus.
ITRS & iNEMI Packaging Roadmaps Intersect iNEMI Market Requirements ITRS Tech Requirements Chip Level System Level IMAPS addresses the Semiconductor Packaging needs of this space.
What is the ITRS? • The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) is an assessment of semiconductor technology requirements. • The objective of the ITRS is to ensure advancements in the performance of integrated circuits. • This assessment, called roadmapping, is a cooperative effort of global industry manufacturers and suppliers, government organizations, consortia, and universities. • The ITRS identifies the technological challenges and needs facing the semiconductor industry over the next 15 years. • It is sponsored by the European Semiconductor Industry Association (ESIA), the Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA), the Korean Semiconductor Industry Association (KSIA), the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), and Taiwan Semiconductor Industry Association (TSIA). • SEMATECH is the global communication center for this activity. The ITRS team at SEMATECH also coordinates the USA region events. http://public.itrs.net/
ITRS Technology Working Groups • The ITRS process encourages discussion and debate throughout the community about the requirements for success. • The key factor in the success of the Roadmap is obtaining consensus on industry drivers, requirements, and technology timelines. • The Technology Working Groups are the organizations that "build" the roadmaps. • These representatives assess the state of technology and identify areas that may provide solutions. • The TWG members also indicate opportunities for new research and innovation. • These groups are made up of volunteer technology experts from chip manufactures, supplier companies, universities and academia, technology labs, and semiconductor technology consortia. • The Technology Working Groups, also known as TWGs, are comprised of the technical disciplines of • System Drivers • Design • Test and Test Equipment • Process Integration, Devices, and Structures • RF and Analog/Mixed-signal Technologies for Wireless Communications • Emerging Research Devices and Materials • Front End Processes • Lithography • Interconnect • Factory Integration • Assembly and Packaging – This is the area where IMAPS will focus. • Environment, Safety, and Health • Yield Enhancement • Metrology • Modeling and Simulation.
iNEMI Roadmap Methodology • iNEMI focusses on top level industry segments via their Product Emulator Groups. • In addition, they address technology areas via their different Technology Working Groups. • A “cross-cut” matrix ensures feedback between the various groups.
iNEMI Technology Working Groups • Business Processes/Technologies: • Product Lifecycle Information Management • Design Technologies: • Environmentally Conscious Electronics • Modeling, Simulation & Design Tools • Thermal Management • Manufacturing Technologies: • Board Assembly • Test, Inspection & Measurement • Final Assembly • Component Subsystem Technologies: • Passive Components • RF Components & Subsystems • Packaging – This is one of the areas where IMAPS will focus. • Semiconductor Technology • Organic Substrates • Mass Data Storage • Connectors • Energy Storage Systems • Optoelectronics • Sensors • Organic and Printed Electronics • Ceramic Substrates – IMAPS also contributes to this TWG.
iNEMI Cross-cut Matrix A “cross-cut” matrix ensures feedback between the various groups.
Update calendar for ITRS / iNEMI • 2006 ITRS Roadmap release scheduled for December 4, 2006. • 2007 iNEMI Roadmap release scheduled for February 2007 at APEX, Los Angeles.
Why IMAPS should be involved. • ITRS focuses mainly on “front end” wafer fab areas, with a chapter on Semiconductor Assembly & Packaging. • iNEMI focuses mainly on “board level” assembly, with a chapter on Semiconductor Assembly & Packaging. • ITRS/iNEMI are working together to align their Semiconductor Assembly & Packaging Roadmaps. • Many of the same people are on both teams. • Some IMAPS members are also on both teams. • IMAPS’ focus is on Semiconductor Assembly & Packaging. • It’s a natural fit to take the output of the ITRS/iNEMI Semiconductor Assembly & Packaging Roadmaps and use that output to direct IMAPS’ activities towards solving gaps in the roadmap. • IMAPS’ corporate members will benefit by developing real industry solutions for real industry challenges.
Global Semiconductor Packaging Materials Outlook Market Size for Materials = Market Opportunities for IMAPS members. Source: SEMI Industry Research and Statistics and TechSearch International, November 2005 This forecast was supplied courtesy of SEMI & Techsearch International. The full report is available from SEMI’s web catalog at www.semi.org .
Roll-out plan for IMAPS to address roadmaps • Form a GBC Roadmap Team.- DONE • GBC Roadmap Team creates a roadmap template (“red brick”) and identifies current gaps on the existing roadmaps. - DONE • GBC Roadmap Team communicates those gaps to the NTC. • GBC and NTC structure future IMAPS events to focus on those gaps – ongoing. • Dave Saums to give short presentation at LED & Thermal ATWs in September 2006. • Meantime, GBC/NTC to support ITRS/iNEMI updates with input & communicate back to IMAPS issues/trends. • Use IMAPS members on the ITRS/iNEMI roadmap TWGs to facilitate communication: Laurie Roth, Howard Imhof....and other volunteers.
Recommended Areas of Focus for IMAPS Members • Develop Feasible Embedded Components. • Develop Enhanced Materials to Enable Wafer Level Packaging. • Bring Solutions to Resolve Thermal Management Issues. • Develop New Materials to Reduce System Cost While Delivering the Necessary Performance. • Close the Gap Between Chip and Substrate Interconnect Density. • Resolve the issues low K and Cu bring to Packaging.
The complete chapter can be downloaded from the ITRS website: http://www.itrs.net/Common/2005ITRS/AP2005.pdf The following slides contain key excerpts.
ITRS 2005 Semiconductor Packaging Roadmap Table of Contents All of these topics – and those on the next slide – are comprehensively covered in the ITRS Roadmap. This presentation will focus on the key challenges only. • Packaging Materials Requirements • New Materials • Embedded and Integrated Passives • Assembly and Packaging Infrastructure Challenges • Electrical Design Requirements • Cross Talk • Power Distribution and Power Subsystem • Thermo-mechanical Challenges in Electronic Packaging • Mechanical Challenges • Mechanical Modeling and Simulation and Validation • Thermal Modeling and Simulation and Validation • Equipment Requirements for Emerging Package Types • Potential Solutions • Wafer Level Packaging • Chip to Next Level Interconnect • Package to Board Interconnect • Fine Pitch Ball Grid Array/CSP Packages • Socketed Parts • Embedded and Integrated Passives • Package Substrates • Build-Up and Coreless Substrates • Rigid Substrate Technology • Chapter Scope • Difficult Challenges • Technology Requirements • Single Chip Packages • High Pin-Count Packages • Wafer Level Packaging • System in a Package (Multi-chip Packages, 3D Packaging) • Flexible Substrates and Interconnect • Optoelectronic Packaging • RF Packaging • MEMS • Medical and Bio Chip Packaging • Biocompatibility • Bio Packaging Reliability • Integrated Circuit • Manufacturing • Cost • Reliability • Package and Interconnect Characterization and Simulation • Simulation • Reliability Testing • Soft Errors
ITRS 2005 Semiconductor Packaging Roadmap Table of Contentscontinued • System in Package (SiP) – System Level Integration • Types/Categories of SiP’s • Side by Side Placement (Horizontal Packages) • Stacked Structures • Package-on-Package (POP), Package-in-Package (PiP) • Stacked Die Packages • Chip to Chip/Wafer Structure • Embedded Structures • Technologies for SiP • Wafer level SiP and 3 D Integration Technologies • Technologies for Embedded Devices • Challenges for SiP • Thermal management • System in Package Outlook • Wafer Thinning • Glossary of Terms • Cross-Cut ITWG Issues • Design • Factory Integration • Die Traceability Crosscut with Factory Integration • Interconnect • RF/AMS Wireless • Environment, Safety and Health • Modeling and Simulation • Metrology • Test
ITRS: Single Chip Package • Incremental improvements in traditional assembly technologies will not be sufficient to meet market requirements. • The substrate dominates the cost of single chip packaging. • Cost per pin has been trending up, instead of down. • Operating temperatures are a problem in harsh environments. • Higher frequency chip-to-board speeds for peripheral buses.
ITRS: High Pin-Count Packages • Package pin count grows as higher frequency and higher power density demand more power and ground pins. • Substrate technology requires micro-vias, blind & buried vias, stacked vias and tighter lines and spacing. • Substrate technology advances lead to significant cost increases for design/test and a reduced supplier base. • System-in-Package will become more important to reduce the need for high density interconnects in the package substrate and the PCB.
ITRS: Chip-to-Package Substrate Development work is required for finer pitch in-line wire bond & area array flip chip.
ITRS: System-in-Package - definitions SoC and SiP Comparison for Cost per Function and Time to Market vs. Complexity • SiP enables reduction in size, weight, cost & power. • System-on-Chip can address size, weight & power, but at cost, design & test premiums. • SiP integrates multiple functions/devices in a single package. • Can integrate different elements such as MEMS, opto, bio.... • Includes 3D “stacked die” packaging. • Requires Known Good Die.
ITRS: System-in-Package Requirements The number of stacked die and the number of die in a SiP are challenges.
ITRS: Thinned Wafers Long term challenge for extreme thin packages.
ITRS: Wafer Level Packaging • Near term challenges: • I/O pitch between 150 µm - 250 µm >100 I/O • Solder joint reliability • Wafer thinning and handling technologies • Compact ESD structures • TCE mismatch compensation for large die
ITRS: Flexible Substrates • Near term challenges: • Conformal low cost organic substrates • Small and thin die assembly • Handling in low cost operation
ITRS: Interconnect It is very challenging to maintain packaging reliability with strong chip-to-package interaction resulting from new materials, new processes, and new interconnect features at the Si level.
ITRS: Optoelectronic Packaging • Package Sealing • Hermetic sealing to protect the optical devices - TO header & butterfly packaging. • Non-hermetically sealed organic packaging for cost sensitive applications. • Alignment • < 0.5 µm alignment between single mode fiber & optical device for high data rate applications. • 5 to 10 µm alignment accuracy for cost sensitive applications, using relatively large diameter polymer optical fiber (POF) • Adhesive to assure alignment through succeeding high temperature processes & product usage life. • Materials • POF material improvement in attenuation reduction and data rate increase is required. • Material development for poly-clad-silica (PCS) fiber. • Optically clear molding compound or clear glob tops for optical windows. • Vertical integration to include more functionality in a package. • Wafer-level-packaging (WLP) process to integrate lenses or other micro-opticalelectro-mechanical system (MOEMS) devices, and to provide environmental protection for a VCSEL wafer. • Some micro-optical components, e.g. polymer waveguides and beam reflectors, may be embedded in the SiP substrate. • A BGA based SiP may house optical connectors, laser diodes, photodetectors, CMOS IC containing receivers/drivers and multiplexer/demultiplexer, plus RF connectors, and decoupling capacitors.
ITRS: RF Packaging • Many of the technology challenges for RF packaging arise from the fact that the IC packaging engineering practice, technology knowledge base, and manufacturing infrastructures have been based upon digital IC packaging developed in the last forty odd years. • Issues • The inductance characteristics associated with bonding wires and leaded packages, and effect of molding compound materials limit the RF performance. • RF package modeling tools and materials properties database for package design and device-package co-design for the broad spectrum of RF market applications. • Improvements in materials properties—molding compounds, underfills, substrates are required. • Being able to embed passive components in LTCC. • To meet the low cost challenges, embedded inductance and capacitance components and networks in organic packaging for RF applications must be diligently pursued. • Tools to enable device package co-design in SIP packages will be very important.
ITRS: Medical & Bio Chip Packaging • BIOCOMPATIBILITY • No interaction with body tissues and fluids. • No inflammatory reactions. • No toxicity to bio-organisms. • No outgassing or other decay products that may be harmful to bio-organisms. • Must be chemically inert to various concentrations of bio-reagents including ethanol. • May include high flow rates with significant back pressure. • BIO PACKAGING RELIABILITY • Major concerns are patient safety and risk mitigation. • For life-sustaining devices, component failure rate as low as 100 ppm, few ppm critical failure rate. • Challenge to capture low occurrence failures in reliability testing. • EMI is a major concern. • Pressure requirements: in a barometric pressure chamber or while scuba diving. • Defibrillation devices could generate significant localized heating in the high voltage charging circuit when delivering therapy, challenging the package substrate and PCB. • MANUFACTURING • In accordance with regulatory requirements for medical devices • Requirements for control of the manufacturing environment, labeling of the packages, and documentation.
ITRS: Cost • Today packaging costs often exceed die fabrication costs. • Leadfree solders. • Low K & High K dielectrics. • Higher processing temperatures. • Wider range of environmental temperatures. • More efficient thermal management needed.
ITRS: Reliability & Simulation New failure modes caused by new materials needed to meet environmental and performance requirements, result in significant challenges in field reliability prediction based on accelerated lab testing for broad product application field requirements. • The introduction of the new materials and structures to meet environmental, heat and speed requirements are posing new reliability challenges. • New technology will be required to meet the reliability goals including: • New reliability tests such as drop tests for mobile products. • Correlation between field- and laboratory testing. • Improved methods for failure detection and analysis (e.g., X-ray, acoustic, nano-deformation and localized residual stress measurement.) • Materials and interface characterization. Interfacial delamination will continue to be a critical reliability hazard that is worsened by the trends to larger chips, new materials and increased layer count. More layers require the understanding of more interfaces. • Simulation and modeling for life time prediction (e.g., multi-field coupling, structure-property correlation, ab-initio methods, modular and parametric approaches).
ITRS: Infrastructure • Electrical design • Cross talk • Power distribution & power subsystem • Thermo-mechanical • Modeling & Simulation • Equipment
www.inemi.org The iNEMI Roadmap is only available for download to TWG members or on-line purchase. The following slides contain key excerpts from the 2007 Roadmap Update-in-progess.
Recommended Areas of Focus for IMAPS MembersSummary • Develop Feasible Embedded Components. • Develop Enhanced Materials to Enable Wafer Level Packaging. • Bring Solutions to Resolve Thermal Management Issues. • Develop New Materials to Reduce System Cost While Delivering the Necessary Performance. • Close the Gap Between Chip and Substrate Interconnect Density. • Resolve the issues low K and Cu bring to Packaging.
ITRS: Difficult Challenges ≥ 32 nm –Near Term The ITRS Roadmap segments issues into those that are Near Term & affect Wafer Nodes ≥ 32 nm and those that are Long Term & affect Wafer Nodes <32 nm.