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Updates on international efforts for risk reduction of PFCs. Kei Ohno Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention Stockholm Convention . Objective: To protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants (POPs). . Listed 21 POPs . Annex A (Elimination)

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Updates on international efforts for risk reduction of PFCs

Kei Ohno

Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention

stockholm convention
Stockholm Convention


To protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

listed 21 pops
Listed 21 POPs

Annex A (Elimination)

  • Pesticides: Aldrin, alpha HCH, beta HCH, chlordane, chlordecone, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, lindane, mirex, toxaphene
  • Industrial chemicals: hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, hexabromobiphenyl, hexa and hepta BDEs, tetra and penta BDEs, pentachlorobenzene,

Annex B (Restriction)

  • Pesticides: DDT
  • Industrial chemicals: Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), its salts and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF)

Annex C (Unintentional production)

  • Dioxins and furans, PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene
obligations for listed pops
Obligations for listed POPs
  • Implement control measures
  • If no alternatives, register specific exemptions, acceptable purposes
  • Develop and implement Action Plans for unintentional POPs
  • Develop inventories of the stockpiles
  • Review and updateNational Implementation Plan
  • Conduct monitoring for effectiveness evaluation

Acceptable purposes for PFOS

  • Photo imaging
  • Photo resist and anti-reflective coatings for semi-conductors
  • Etching agent for compound semi-conductors and ceramic filters
  • Aviation hydraulic fluids
  • Metal plating only in closed-loop systems
  • Certain medical devices (e.g. ETFE layers, radio-opaque ETFE, in vitro diagnostic medical devices, CCD colour filters)
  • Fire fighting foam
  • Insect baits for control of leaf-cutting ants.

Specific exemptions for PFOS

  • Photo masks in the semiconductor and LCD industries
  • Metal plating (decorative and hard)
  • Electric and electronic parts for some colour printers and colour copy machines
  • Insecticides for control of red imported fire ants and termites
  • Chemically driven oil production
  • Carpets
  • Leather and apparel
  • Textiles and upholstery
  • Paper and packaging
  • Coatings and coating additives
  • Rubber and plastics
risk management evaluation document for pfos 2007 and 2008
Risk management evaluation document for PFOS (2007 and 2008)

UNEP/POPS/POPRC.3/20/Add.5 and UNEP/POPS/POPRC.4/15/Add.6

Information gathered in accordance with Annex F

  • Efficacy and efficiency of possible control measures
  • Alternatives (costs, risks, efficacy, accessibility)
  • Positive/negative impacts of control measures on health, agriculture, biota, economic aspects, social costs
  • Waste, disposal implications, stockpiles
  • Access to information and public education
  • Status of control and monitoring capacity
  • Any national or regional control actions
general guidance on consideration for identification of alternatives 2009

Collection of use and emission information on chemicals

Consultation to define a chemical’s use

Description of the chemical’s existing use and functionality

Information on release into the environment

Identification of alternatives

Identification of potential alternatives

Assessment of availability, technical feasibility, accessibility and efficacy of alternatives

Assessment of risk related to alternatives

POPs screening criteria

Hazardous properties

Non-chemical alternatives

Verification of controls in other jurisdictions

Social and economic assessment of alternatives

Evaluation of alternatives

General guidance on consideration for identification of alternatives (2009)


guidance on alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonate and its derivatives 2010
Guidance on alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonate and its derivatives (2010)

To be published in UNEP/POPS/POPRC.6/13/Add.3 (UNEP/POPS/POPRC.6/INF/8 revised at POPRC6)

  • Objectives of the study:
  • To summarize what is currently known about alternatives to PFOS, its salts, and PFOSF
  • To enhance the capacity of developing countries and countries with economies in transition to phase-out PFOS
section ii characteristics of pfos and its derivatives
Section II. Characteristics of PFOS and its derivatives

More complex PFOS precursors are often used.

These derivatives are covered through the listing of PFOSF, the basic material for their manufacture.


Section IV: Properties of alternative substances and hazard assessment

Brief description of the environmental, safety and health properties of PFOS alternatives:

  • Shorter-chain perfluoroalkyl sulfonates
  • Shorter-chain perfluoroalkyl ketones and ethers
  • Polyfluorodialkyl ether sulfonates
  • Fluorotelomers and fluorophosphates
  • Fluorinated co-polymers
  • Fluorinated polyethers
  • Siloxanes and silicone polymers
  • Propylated aromatics
  • Sulfosuccinates
  • Stearamidomethyl pyridine chloride
  • Polypropylene glycol ether, amines, and sulfates

Section V: Comparative assessment of PFOS and possible alternatives

Prices of selected basic polyfluorinated laboratory chemicals

ABCR 2006–2007 catalogue: Fluorochemicals. Karlsruhe, Germany


Section VI: Conclusions, recommendations and future developments

  • Low surface tension is the key
  • Substitutes for PFOS are available
  • Need for better alternatives
  • Need for incentives
  • Complex assessment
  • Need for more public data and information on alternatives
  • Need for better communication in the value chain
  • Need for better communication in the value chain
collected information
Collected information
  • Types and quantities of articles containing PFOS etc., concentrations in articles
  • Types of processes using PFOS etc., concentrations, options for the environmental management
  • Types of articles recycled, the extent of recycling, articles produced from recycling, options for the environmental management
  • Cost effectiveness of different management options
  • Sampling and analysis methods
  • Remediation methods for contaminated sites
recommendations on risk reduction for pfos its salts and pfosf by the pops review committee poprc6
Recommendations on risk reduction for PFOS, its salts, and PFOSF by the POPs Review Committee (POPRC6)

To be published in UNEP/POPS/POPRC.6/13

Recommendations are given in chronological order of the life cycle, provided in short, medium, and long term framework.

  • For industrial production, use, and releases and deposits
  • For use of PFOS
  • For PFOS in existing stocks
  • For recycling of PFOS containing articles
  • For PFOS in consumer products deposited on municipal landfills
  • For releases of PFOS from contaminated sites
short term recommendations in summary
Short-term recommendations in summary:
  • Identify disposal options in compliance with Stockholm Convention guidelines for the destruction of PFOS containing waste including sludge and prevent depositing in landfills;
  • Establish safely storage for indicative PFOS-containing materials and articles as well as existing stocks;
  • Conduct monitoring of PFOS contamination in the surrounding waters of landfills with deposits from PFOS producers/users;
  • Assess occupational exposures of staff working in facilities where articles and wastes potentially containing PFOS are handled;
  • Identify and introduce alternatives to PFOS in open applications and promote use in closed-loop systems and BAT/BEP in treatment;
  • Gather information on the experiences of the use of PFOS alternatives including risk assessment of the alternatives;
  • Raise awareness on environmental and human health effects of PFOS and provide training on appropriate handling of PFOS, including risks caused by misuse of PFOS containing carpets;
  • Establish a strategy for identifying and monitoring of sites contaminated with PFOS in accordance with Article 6.
what s next
What’s next?


25-29 April 2011 in Geneva

for more information
For more information:


Kei Ohno

Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention

+41 22 917 8201

Annex Awith Specific exemptions

Need to register (except for PCBs)

Exemption open for 5 years from the date of entry into force

When all registrations have expired, no new registrations possible

Exemptions may be extended by the COP based on a report by the Party justifying the continuing need for the exemption.

Annex Bwith Specific exemptions and Acceptable purposes

Specific exemptions: same as Annex A

Acceptable purpose: need to register, no expirationunless otherwise decided by the COP

NOTE: Specific exemptions vs. acceptable purposes

note persistent organic pollutants review committee poprc
NOTE: Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee (POPRC)
  • Subsidiary body to the Convention, mandated to review proposals submitted by Parties for listing new chemicals in Annex A, B, or C.
  • 31 government-designated members
  • Terms of reference, conflict of interest procedure: SC-1/7,SC-1/8, SC-4/20