Great Lakes Green Chemistry Network Working Group. Lin Kaatz Chary, Ph.D., MPH. Green Chemistry Workshop GLRPPR April 9, 208. What is the Great Lakes Green Chemistry Network?.
Lin Kaatz Chary, Ph.D., MPH
Green Chemistry Workshop
April 9, 208
Mission: To create a partnership between academia, industry, government and NGOs to promote green chemistry practice in the binational Great Lakes region.
1. Prevent waste. Design chemical synthesis to prevent waste, leaving no waste to treat or clean up
2. Design safer chemicals and products. Design chemical products to be fully effective, yet have little or no toxicity.
3. Design less hazardous chemical synthesis. Design synthesis to use and generate substances with little or no toxicity to humans or the environment.
4. Use renewable feedstocks. Use raw materials and feedstocks that are renewable rather than depleting. Renewable feedstocks are often made from agricultural products or are wastes of other processes; depleting feedstocks are made from fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas or coal) or are. Increase energy efficiency. Run chemical reactions at ambient temperature and pressure whenever possible
5. Use catalysts, not stoichiometric reagents. Minimize wastes by using catalytic reactions. Catalysts are used in small amounts and can carry out a single reaction many times. They are preferable to stoichiometric reagents, which are used in excess and work only once.
6. Avoid chemical derivatives. Avoid using blocking or protecting groups or any temporary modifications if possible. Derivatives use additional reagents and generate waste.
7. Maximize atom efficiency. Design syntheses so that the final product contains the maximum proportion of starting materials. There should be few, if any, wasted atoms.
8. Use safer solvents and reaction conditions. Avoid using solvents, separation agents, or other auxiliary chemicals. If these chemicals are necessary, use innocuous chemicals.
9. Increase energy efficiency. Run chemical reactions at ambient temperature and pressure whenever possible.
10.Design chemical processes and products to degrade after use. Design chemical products to break down to innocuous substances after use so they do not accumulate in the environment.
11.Analyze in real time to prevent pollution. Include in-process real-time monitoring and control during syntheses to minimize or eliminate the formation of byproducts.
12. Minimize the potential for accidents. Design chemicals and their forms (solid, liquid, or gas) to minimize the potential for chemical accidents including explosions, fires and releases to the environment.
Green chemistry involves .... fundamental and innovative chemical methods that accomplish pollution prevention through source reduction and that have broad application in industry. For the purposes of the Program green chemistry is defined as “the use of chemistry for source reduction.”
Green chemistry involves a reduction in or elimination of the use or generation of hazardous materials, including feedstocks, reagents, solvents, products, and by-products from chemical processes.
Sustainable chemistry is the design, manufacture and use of efficient, effective, safe and more environmentally benign chemical products and process.
They are different in subject matter and perspective.
The first focuses directly on hazardous substance reduction, while the OECD definition is broader in its goals and the U.S. EPA definition is directly linked to pollution prevention
Ref: Geiser, Ken, “Green and Sustainable Chemistry: Locating the Concept”, Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, 2006 (personal communication)
Green chemistry addresses hazard reduction and elimination through process changes and material substitution.
"Green engineering" addresses
waste reduction and pollution prevention but may not necessarily include hazard reduction and elimination.
EXAMPLE: Improving plant performance and reducing releases are always the goal of P2.
IF, however, a plant is producing a chemical hazard for distributive technologies, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) , e.g,
P2 efforts, however advanced, are
Is it green chemistry when we replace water disinfection or chemicals breakdown in water that are usually focused on chlorination and that produce hazardous chlorinated byproducts with hydrogen peroxide?
In this situation, the potential for the reduction or elimination of hazardous substances is immense.
Example 2: The pharmaceutical industry is designing drugs to be more bioactive, more bioaccumulative, and more resistant to degradation.
People are excreting these drugs which are getting past the activated sludge at the treatment plants and into the aquatic environment and even into drinking water.
The chemical industry is fundamentally built to inhibit innovation at the level of "big green chemistry"
Basic and commodity chemical industries are highly integrated and highly capitalized leading to little possibility of significant change,