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Dating Events: Solving The Jigsaw Puzzle. Steve M. J. Janssen, Antonio G. Chessa, and Jaap M. J. Murre University of Amsterdam. Jigsaw puzzle. Pieces with a lot of details. Pieces of a puzzle. Pieces with a lot of details Filler pieces. Pieces with a lot of details Filler pieces

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dating events solving the jigsaw puzzle

Dating Events: Solving The Jigsaw Puzzle

Steve M. J. Janssen,

Antonio G. Chessa,

and Jaap M. J. Murre

University of Amsterdam

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV

jigsaw puzzle
Jigsaw puzzle

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV

pieces of a puzzle
Pieces with a lot of detailsPieces of a puzzle
  • Pieces with a lot of details
  • Filler pieces
  • Pieces with a lot of details
  • Filler pieces
  • Connected pieces
  • Pieces with a lot of details
  • Filler pieces
  • Connected pieces
  • Corner and edge pieces
  • Exact date
  • Exact date
  • Context
  • Exact date
  • Context
  • Related events
  • Exact date
  • Context
  • Related events
  • Finer time scales

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV

memory for time theories
Memory for time theories
  • Distance is the elapsed time (i.e., relative time)
  • Distance is the elapsed time (i.e., relative time)
  • Location is the placement of an event in time (i.e., absolute time)
  • Distance is the elapsed time (i.e., relative time)
  • Location is the placement of an event in time (i.e., absolute time)
  • Serial order is the reference to fact that an event occurred before of after another event

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV

integrated model of memory for time janssen et al in press mem cog
Integrated Model Of Memory For Time (Janssen et al., in press, Mem & Cog)
  • Primary temporal information, such as day of month. When there is direct temporal information of an event available, then people can determine the exact date that the event occurred. However, this direct information is forgotten easily.
  • Secondary temporal information, such as context. When there is indirect temporal information available, then people prefer to date the event in the absolute time format. This indirect information is forgotten less easily.
  • When there is neither primary or secondary temporal information available, then people prefer to date the event in the relative time format.

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV

integrated model of memory for time
Integrated Model Of Memory For Time

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV

experiment and hypothesis
Experiment and Hypothesis
  • In this experiment, we will not look at format preference, but at different time scales
  • Do people use different temporal information to date different events?
  • Do people use different temporal information to date different events?
  • Do people recall for some events the year that event occurred better, while for other events the day of the week?
  • Do people use different temporal information to date different events?
  • Do people recall for some events the year that event occurred better, while for other events the day of the week?
  • Are the time scales independent for each event?

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV

participants
Participants
  • http://memory.uva.nl/
  • http://memory.uva.nl/
  • April 2004 – March 2005
  • http://memory.uva.nl/
  • April 2004 – March 2005
  • N = 3974
  • http://memory.uva.nl/
  • April 2004 – March 2005
  • N = 3974
  • M age = 42.23 yrs
  • Majority female (57.2%)
  • http://memory.uva.nl/
  • April 2004 – March 2005
  • N = 3974
  • M age = 42.23 yrs
  • Majority female (57.2%)
  • Majority equivalent of university or college degree (58.9%)
  • http://memory.uva.nl/
  • April 2004 – March 2005
  • N = 3974
  • M age = 42.23 yrs

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV

procedure
Procedure
  • Design from Friedman & Wilkins (1985)
  • Design from Friedman & Wilkins (1985)
  • Semi-random selection of five events
  • Design from Friedman & Wilkins (1985)
  • Semi-random selection of five events
  • For each event, participants had to date the event on only one scale
  • Design from Friedman & Wilkins (1985)
  • Semi-random selection of five events
  • For each event, participants had to date the event on only one scale
  • Five scales: Year (1989-2004/2005), Month (Jan – Dec), Day Of Month (1-31), Day Of Week (Mon – Sun), and Hour (0:00 – 24:00)
  • Design from Friedman & Wilkins (1985)
  • Semi-random selection of five events
  • For each event, participants had to date the event on only one scale
  • Five scales: Year (1989-2004/2005), Month (Jan – Dec), Day Of Month (1-31), Day Of Week (Mon – Sun), and Hour (0:00 – 24:00)
  • For example: “In which month was Princess Amalia born?”

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV

proportion correct
Proportion correct

P(C=1) is the proportion correct

P(R=1) is the adjusted proportion correct

n is the number of options per scale

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV

proportion correct2
Proportion correct
  • Friedman’s Q(4)=17.60, p=.01, Kendall’s W=.440 -> Dependent
  • Friedman’s Q(4)=17.60, p=.01, Kendall’s W=.440 -> Dependent
  • Without year and DOM scale: Friedman’s Q(2)=5.60, p>.05, Kendall’s W=.280 -> Independent
  • Friedman’s Q(4)=17.60, p=.01, Kendall’s W=.440 -> Dependent
  • Without year and DOM scale: Friedman’s Q(2)=5.60, p>.05, Kendall’s W=.280 -> Independent
  • Only remote events: Friedman’s Q(4)=6.53, p>.05, Kendall’s W=.272 -> Independent

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV

distance
Distance

‘d(C,A) is the adjusted distance

d(C,Ai) is the absolute distance per answer

N is the number of answers

n is the number of options per scale

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV

distance2
Distance
  • Friedman’s Q(4)=17.60, p=.01, Kendall’s W=.440 -> Dependent
  • Friedman’s Q(4)=17.60, p=.01, Kendall’s W=.440 -> Dependent
  • Without month scale: Friedman’s Q(3)=5.40, p>.05, Kendall’s W=.180 -> Independent

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV

discussion
Discussion
  • We found that the time scales were independent, when we only looked at events that occurred more than two years ago
  • Or when we omitted one of the time scales

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV

incomplete puzzle
Incomplete puzzle

For some events, people recall the exact date, while for other events only the period in which they occurred. For other events, people remember that they happened just after another event, but most events are forgotten.In contrast to a real jigsaw puzzle, the puzzle of event dating can never be completely solved

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV

thank you for your attention
Thank you for your attention
  • Steve Janssen
  • http://memory.uva.nl/
  • s.m.j.janssen@uva.nl

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV