Computer Industry • One of the most influential industries to the economy. • Constant state of change • The market is unlimited • The main distribution channel of computers is the Internet.
The Future of PC Technology Amy Gentile Susie Warning Besty Buckham Kehinde Walker Rajnita Gupta
PC’s Encourage… • Software Learning Experiences • Better Management and Control Opportunities • Better Network Relationships • Creativity and Innovation • Involvement of Engineers
Breakthrough Technology • 1969 - Silicon chip • 1980’s – desktops in corporations • 1990’s – Powerful Pc’s • 1997 -Popular PC’s • 1998 - Sales grew to $170 billion
PC Costs • In 1997 the average cost was $1,600. • In 1999 the average cost was $950. • Prices will continue to decrease.
Forecasts: • Satellites • Internet • Super Materials • Edutainment • Hybrid Fuel Vehicles • Personalized Public Transportation • High Power Energy Packages • Omnipresent Computing • Nanotechnology
What is a Satellite? • Wireless receiver/transmitter • Hundreds of satellites currently in use • Used for : • weather forecasting • television broadcast • radio communications • Internet • Global Positioning System
How do Satellites Work? • Communications subsystem very important • Significant factors: • special antennas • receivers • transmitters • Radio dishes transmit and receive signals to communicate
Command and Data • Subsystems that are very important to the functions of satellites • Consist of computers that gather and process data on a satellite • Inputs • Outputs
GPS (Global Positioning System) • Collection of 24 satellites that orbit the Earth • Identify location • Each satellite contains a computer, an atomic clock, and a radio. • Clock, continually broadcasts its changing position and time • OnStar systems
The Global Positioning System satellites locate a vehicle • Special hand held cellular phone provides a communications link • Most likely become so common that it is a standard feature • Most important is the automatic air bag notification
Other Features: • Convenience/Information Services • Concierge Services • Emergency Services • Remote Door Unlock • Roadside Assistance • Route Support • New Services • Theft Protection
The Future of Satellite • Smart maps and tracking devices • Safer and easier • Show travelers, boaters, and hikers their exact position and direction • Prevent crime • Automatic driving
Personal Computing at The Next Level • Hewlett-Packard Developments • PC eyeglasses
The “Internet Home” • Homeowners choose • Home web site • Automated appliances • Replacement of PCs
2010 and Beyond… • New appliances and features • Food and packaging • Anti-bacterial concerns • Environmental concerns
“The most likely way for the world to be destroyed is by accident. That’s where we come in; we’re computer professionals. We cause accidents.”-Nathaniel Borenstein • Engineers, Scientists, and Computer Technologist are combining forces to create the greatest technical revolution. The invention of smart materials will shift the computer industry to new heights.
Institute of Physics (IOP), U.K.Definition… • Materials Science • Sensing and Actuation • Optics and Electromagnetics • Structures • Control
Materials Science • Composites • Ceramics • Processing Science • Interface Science • Conducting and Chiral Polymers • Electro chromic Materials • Liquid Crystals • Biomaterials
Sensing and Actuation • Electromagnetic Sensing • Acoustic Sensing • Singled-Measured Sensors • Compatibility of Sensors and Actuators with Conventional and Advanced Materials • Smart Sensors for Materials and Composites Processing
Optics and Electromagnetics • Optical Fiber Technology • Active and Adaptive Optical Systems • Tunable High-Dielectric Phase Shifters • Tunable Surface Control
Structures • Smart Skins (for drag and turbulence control) • Applications in Aerospace and Hydrospace Structures • Civil Infrastructures • Transportation Vehicles • Manufacturing Equipment
Control • Structural Acoustic Control • Analogue and Digital Feedback Control • Real-Time Implementation • Adaptive Structure Stability • Damage for Structural Control • Information Processing
Smart Structures • Bridges, office buildings that will detect stress and warn drivers of stress related situations • Example – The bridge will change colors when it senses stress.
Smart Homes • Homes will be built with sensor computers to with a security system and sensors to detect problems • Smart Materials would allow structures to reconstruct in cases of disaster. Rebuilding would occur in modules. Each module would take five hour maximum to rebuild itself. • Example - When fires, tornados, floods, huricanes, earthquakes occur and cause damage to houses, smart homes will rebuild itself.
Edutainment…. • Educational Games and Computerized Simulations • Virtual Reality Video and Entertainment • Virtual Amusement Parks, Petting Zoos, Water Parks
Smart Clothing • Shoes and clothing that would adapt to the weather • Example- shoes would contain a mini computer that prompted various shoe covering to fit the weather. ( i.e. rain, snow)
Hybrid Fueled Vehicles • Smart Vehicles will be equipped to handle several types of fuel • Gas will be used but it will be reformulated and combined with other energy sources to reduce emissions and increase performance • Example- Energy sources for our cars will be water, sunlight, air
The Future of Transportation • Alternative mobile power • Public transportation infrastructure • Elimination of traffic jams and rush hours • High demand for personal vehicles
Smart Transportation • Cars will be able to function in all types of situations. Cars will function in the on the ground, in the air, and underwater.
Omnipresent Computing • Miniaturization of electronics for personal use. • Interactive, wireless, data centers in a unit size of a pocket calculator will serve as a fax, telephone and computer • Even smaller
Ominipresent computers • Always with you • Hands-free • Always on and working, sensing and acting • Sensors that include wireless communications, GPS, cameras and microphones • Immediate notification of e-mail
Omnipresent Computing • By 2020, these computers embedded in our clothes • Possibly implanted in our skin
Nanotechnology: Its impact on the future of computers.
What is Nanotechnology? • It is the manufacturing of things one atom at a time with the use of small, programmed self-replicating robotic arms, (which are about 3 to 4 atoms wide) . • The production of matter would be computerized at an atomic level.
What can nanotechnology do for the future? • Reversing aging, hence immortality • Easy and affordable space travel • Reversing environmental damage • Reintroduction of extinct organisms • Faster computers • And much more
How do we research nanotechnology? • It combines the disciplines of: • Computer science • Chemistry • Biology • Physics • Electronics
Nanotechnology Research (cont’d) • The goal is to be able to manipulate atoms individually, placing them where we want, on a structure. • $100 million has been invested in a 10 year nanotechnology research project in Japan at MITI.
Nanotechnology Research (cont’d) • Atomic-level precision is predicted to come into place by 2015. • However, it could be many years before we see significant impact.
Nanotechnology and computers • A primitive computer many years ago was the size of a room. • Overtime, computers have gotten smaller. • With the use of nanotechnology, computers would become very, very small, and billions of times faster.
Labor and nanotechnology • A lot of the labor market will consist of Systems programmers. • Systems programmers would have to write the software for microscopic computers to follow. • Industrial-manufacturing processes will become obsolete. • Consumer goods will be produced inexpensively, but durable.
Microscopic computers would be able to: • Patrol our bodies as artificial immune systems • Repair cells • Manipulate DNA --Hence reversing the aging process.
Nanoecology • No Waste...No By-Products...No Slag...Nothing to Dump, Spew or Pollute • “Servants of Humanity" will be called upon to resurface existing roads with a coating of high-efficiency solar cells. • Only a small portion of existing road surface would be needed for energy collection.
How to get involved…. • Rice University in Houston, Texas, has a Nanotechnology Task Force. • There is no specialized degree for nanotechnology, but the best place to go is Rice University, and apply for one of the science programs.
How we make it happen? • Currently, there are many government projects. • But we need more funding to support these projects. • Currently the most expensively funded project in the world is the one in Japan, for $100 million, (as mentioned earlier). • Not enough people know about it.
Nanotechnology web sites • http://www.nanozine.com • http://www.zyvex.com/nano/ • http://www.foresight.org/ • http://www.nanoindustries.com • http://www.nsf.gov/home/crssprgm/nano/start.htm