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Chinese Military

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  1. Chinese Military

  2. Chinese Military: An Overview • Air Force (ChinaToday) • 2,556 jet fighters • 400 ground attack jets • 470,000 airmen • Ground Force • 1.9 million men • 14,000 tanks • 14,500 artillery pieces • 453 helicopters

  3. Chinese Military: An Overview • Navy • 250,000 sailors • 63 submarines • 18 destroyers • 35 frigates • Second Artillery Force • Strategic missile force • People’s Armed Police

  4. Chinese Military: An Overview • Chinese Military • People’s Liberation Army • Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army (1927-36) • Eighth-route Army (1936-1945) • People’s Liberation Army (1946-present) • Role of Army in Chinese Revolution • “Political power comes out of the barrel of a gun” • Guns against counter-revolutionaries • Guns against intra-Party opportunists

  5. Chinese Military: An Overview • CCP & Army • Party commands gun. • Political commissar in charge • Zhu & Mao • Liu & Deng • Defining Features of Chinese Military • A political instrument • A tool of the Party to overthrow KMT • An org to mobilize masses • A force of social & pol stability

  6. Chinese Military: An Overview • Defining Features of Chinese Military • Human will determines outcome of war • No blind faith in the power of weapons • Good strategies & planning best fighting power • Army & masses • “The army is the fish and the people are the water” • Importance of rapport w people

  7. Chinese Military: An Overview • Defining Features of Chinese Military • People’s War • Mobilization of masses in national defense • Organization of paramilitary groups • Mobile guerilla-type tactics • Avoid confrontation when disadvantaged • Attack from a vantage point • Protracted war • Economic functions • Self-sufficiency

  8. Chinese Military: An Overview • Defining Features of Chinese Military • Economic functions • Self-sufficiency • army-maintained farms • Production & Construction Corps • Reclamation • Railway construction • Equality • Fair treatment of soldiers • “Sharing weal and woe”

  9. Chinese Military: An Overview • Defining Features of Chinese Military • A model for society • Disciplined • Devotion to duty • Loyal to the Party • Unafraid of hardship & death • Lack of clear distinction btwn army & civilian leadership • 1st generation leaders: all military commanders

  10. Chinese Military: An Overview • Defining Features of Chinese Military • Lack of clear distinction btwn army & civilian leadership • 1st generation leaders: all military commanders • Mao: top military strategist & army political commissar • Zhu De: Red Army commander-in-chief • Zhou Enlai: Vice chairman of military commission

  11. Evolution of Chinese Military • Rise of Professionalism • Korean War • Weaknesses in • Firepower • Air support • Logistics • Communications • Calls for military modernization • Professionalization & specialization • Soviet military training & experience

  12. Evolution of Chinese Military • Rise of Professionalism • Soviet-assisted military modernization • Soviet hardware import • Soviet weapons making know-how transfer • Soviet expert-assisted professional training • Increase of military training & reduction of political participation • Adoption of Soviet-type rank system • Conscription

  13. Evolution of Chinese Military • Setback of ProfessionalismTwo factors • Khrushchev & Soviet Model • Downfall of Peng Dehuai Questions & Manifestations • Chinese experience or Soviet model? • Indigenous approach to defense • Primacy of people or weapons? • People being the determinant

  14. Evolution of Chinese Military • Setback of ProfessionalismQuestions & Manifestations • Modern warfare or People’s War? • “Long live the People’s War” • Army officers or Party in command? • Abolition of rank system

  15. Evolution of Chinese Military • Revival of Professionalism(1978 – present) • Forward defense strategy • More attention to professional training • Advanced weaponry • Modern & responsive force • Professional training • Party control & separation of army from party

  16. Chinese Military in the 21st Century • Strategic Issues • China as a rising economic superpower • “rise of China” • “the waking dragon” • “China: a rival or partner” • “Is China status quo power?” • China on the world oil market • “China in Latin America” • “China, Africa, and Oil” • China, US in Middle East, energy competition

  17. Chinese Military in the 21st Century • Strategic Issues • China as a rising economic superpower • China on the world oil market • China and Russia • China, Russia, Peace Mission 2005 • Putin in China, 2006 • Security in Northeast Asia • Taiwan • Japan • Korea

  18. Chinese Military in the 21st Century • Strategic Issues • China as a rising economic superpower

  19. Chinese Military in the 21st Century • Strategic Issues • China as a rising economic superpower • China’s GDP Growth Projection • 2010: $2.6 trillion • 2015: $3.5 trillion • 2020: $4.8 trillion • 2025: 6.4 trillion Source: Military Power of the PRC: A Report to Congress, 2005

  20. Chinese Military in the 21st Century • Strategic Issues • China as a rising economic superpower • China’s military Spending Projection

  21. Chinese Military in the 21st Century • Strategic Issues • China on the World Oil Market

  22. Chinese Military in the 21st Century • Strategic Issues • China & Russia • Common Interest • Territorial integrity • North Korea, Iran, NATO expansion • Trade & economy

  23. Chinese Military in the 21st Century • Strategic Issues • Security in Northeast Asia • Beijing – Taipei • Conflict over “One China”

  24. Chinese Military in the 21st Century Ground Force Comparison: Beijing vs Taipei

  25. Chinese Military in the 21st Century • Beijing vs Taipei: Air force

  26. Chinese Military in the 21st Century • Beijing vs Taipei: Navy

  27. Chinese Military in the 21st Century • Strategic Issues • Strategic objectives of China’s military • Internal political stability • Status quo across Taiwan Straits • Protection of China’s lifelines on the high seas • A deterrent to miscalculation in Korean Peninsula • Is China’s rise peaceful?

  28. Chinese Military in the 21st Century • Strategic Issues • Is China’s rise peaceful? • Zbigniew BrzezinskiChina’s rise shall be peaceful. China’s leaders are rationale, pragmatic; They care about growth, people’s livelihood, and own rule. • John MearsheimerChina is no difference from USA; China shall strive for regional hegemony; China’s rise cannot be friction-free.