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Boats - Docking

Boats - Docking

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Boats - Docking

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  1. Boats - Docking Quartermaster Requirement 6

  2. Quartermaster Requirement 6 • Demonstrate and teach the Motorboating merit badge. • Know the principles of springing into and out from a dock, from both bow and stern, using an engine depending on the type of craft used by your ship. • Take charge of the craft used by your ship, or suitable powered craft and give all necessary commands to the crew while coming alongside and getting under way in several wind and current situations. • Note: The purpose of this requirement is to demonstrate a knowledge of the effect of propeller, steering, and hull in boat handling. • Reference: • "Orders to the Crew" on page 155 • Motorboating merit badge pamphlet, No. 33294. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  3. Docking • One of the most difficult aspects of sailing a large keelboat is docking.  • Sailboats are often heavy and have significant inertia.  • Approach the dock with a speed no greater than to maintain steerage, usually around one knot, and with fenders in place and lines manned.   • Reverse gear often does little to slow the boat and will usually swing the stern to one side or another due to prop-walk.  • The glide zone is the distance it takes the boat to stop when the forward thrust is turned off while advancing at the minimum speed to maintain steerage.  • Become familiar with the rotation point of the boat (usually where the keel is), the turning radius and the glide zone.  Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  4. Rule #1 to Avoid Docking Injuries • Before each docking maneuver, make sure everyone understands what he or she will be doing. • The corollary to Rule 1 is to be aware of where your crew is and what each is doing. • A woman in California was securing a spring line to a cleat when the skipper suddenly backed down hard with his two 200 HP engines and she got her fingers crushed. • Another man was standing on the dock holding onto a trawler's bow pulpit when the skipper gunned the engine and yanked him into the water. • In both claims (and many others) the skipper and crew were acting independently. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  5. Rule #2 to Avoid Docking Injuries • Don't encourage your crew to make Olympian leaps onto the dock. • This is one of the most common types of accidents. • A California man broke both his heals when he landed on the dock after jumping from the bow of a large sailboat. • Whenever possible, hand dock lines to someone on the dock. If that isn't possible, wait until the boat is safely alongside the pier before instructing someone to step ashore. • Your crew shouldn't have to make daring leaps across open water to make up for sloppy boat handling. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  6. Rule #3 to Avoid Docking Injuries • Keep fingers and limbs inboard! • As a boats gets close to a dock, passengers tend to gravitate toward the rail and drape fingers, legs and arms over the side of the boat. • If the boat suddenly swings into a dock or piling, the consequences can be painful. • A woman in Solomons, Maryland lost a finger when a passing boat's wake slammed her boat into a piling. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  7. Rule #4 to Avoid Docking Injuries • Make sure everyone is seated or has something to hold onto. • “One Hand for Yourself, One Hand for the Boat” • The owner of a 20' runabout asked his inexperienced nephew to jump onto the dock with a bowline. • The young man eagerly climbed out of his seat and stood precariously on the bow as the boat was approaching the dock. • A few seconds later the boat glanced off of a piling, only slightly, but without a handhold the nephew lost his balance and fractured his elbow. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  8. Rule #5 to Avoid Docking Injuries • Don't use bodies to stop the boat -- slow down and use fenders. • Fenders are easy to replace – bodies aren’t! • A Florida man suffered a separated shoulder when he tried to keep a 38' Sportfisherman from backing into a piling. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  9. Stand by to DockThis tells the crew to be ready in their positions when docking. Stand by LinesThis tells people standing on the wharf or pier to be ready to hand the lines to the people on deck so that they can take them in. Heave the Bow Line(or line to be used)The line is heaved to the dock by whichever deckhand is in charge of it. Cast Off LinesTells the people standing on the wharf or pier to hand or toss the lines to the crew on deck. Take in SlackThe deckhands are to pull in the slack and snub it around a cleat. Take a StrainThe deckhands are to pull on the line named, snubbing it around the cleat but allowing a little slippage. Ease OffThe line is allowed to slip more freely. HoldThis means to check the line temporarily. Secure LinesThis means to tie the lines down permanently, adjusting to proper length. Docking Commands Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  10. Dock Lines • PainterThe docking line for a small boat, such as a canoe, dinghy, or small sailboat • HawserA large line (3”-5”) for towing, mooring, or securing a boat • Bow linesDocking lines led from the bow forward at about 45 degrees • Stern linesDocking lines led from the stern aft at about 45 degrees • Spring linesDocking lines led from the bow or stern, aft or forward, to a dock cleat or piling preventing fore and aft movement. • Breast linesLines attached laterally from a boat to a boat or dock, preventing movement away from the dock. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  11. Bow and Stern Lines • Run diagonally from bow and stern mooring cleats as four corner lines • Primary function is to keep the boat away from the dock and cut down side to side motion. • Normally the first ropes made off and for a short stay such as refueling they may be adequate. • If the boat is left moored on these two lines only it will tend to twist and surge back and forth on the dock. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  12. Spring lines • Keep a boat from pushing forward or aft out of the dock or slip • a forward spring line runs forward from the boat to a dock or a post. • an aft or after spring line runs aft from the boat to a dock or a post. • Help steady a boat with a wind over the bow. • Should be as long as possible and as close to parallel to the boat as possible. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  13. Mooring Alongside Another Vessel • Often need to moor alongside another vessel. • Try to pick a boat that is the same size or larger and of a similar type. • Need breast lines between the bows and sterns of the two boats, and spring lines, • Normal to rig some shore lines for each boat. • Load is shared between all the yachts, especially when there is a strong tide or offshore wind. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  14. Dipping the eye • Two boats have their dock lines around the same piling, and the boat owner of the lower line wants to remove his to cast off. • Either first remove the line on top or perform the maneuver called "dipping the eye". • This method allows either line to be removed without disturbing the other Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  15. Docking to a Pier • In a low wind situation it is often easier to dock to a pier on the port side if your sailboat has a right-hand prop and to the starboard side if your sailboat has a left-hand prop.  • When reverse is applied, this will allow the prop walk to swing the stern of the boat toward the pier .  Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  16. Crosswind Blowing Away From The Pier • In a light crosswind blowing away from the pier, the sailboat should approach the pier at a 45 degree angle.  • A quick turn is made and the boat is brought alongside the pier.  • A crew member may have to step quickly onto the pier and secure the dock lines to the pier's cleats or the boat may be blown away from the dock. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  17. Docking with a Mid-Ship Line • In heavier crosswinds, docking can be accomplished with use of a mid-ship line or a bow line. • Approach the pier at a 45 degree angle. • Use intermittent forward thrust that is just a little greater than the force of the wind. • Have a mid-ship forward spring line rigged and led up to the bow. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  18. Docking with a Mid-Ship Line • Have a mid-ship forward spring line rigged and led up to the bow. • Drop the spring line over a piling or attach to a dock cleat Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  19. Docking with a Mid-Ship Line • Have a mid-ship forward spring line rigged and led up to the bow. • Drop the spring line over a piling or attach to a dock cleat • Turn the boat to starboard and give intermittent forward thrust. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  20. Docking with a Mid-Ship Line • Have a mid-ship forward spring line rigged and led up to the bow. • Drop the spring line over a piling or attach to a dock cleat • Turn the boat to starboard and give intermittent forward thrust. • With forward thrust, the spring line pulls the boat towards the dock. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  21. Docking with a Mid-Ship Line • Have a mid-ship forward spring line rigged and led up to the bow. • Drop the spring line over a piling or attach to a dock cleat • Turn the boat to starboard and give intermittent forward thrust. • With forward thrust, the spring line pulls the boat towards the dock. • Attach the bow line Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  22. Docking with a Mid-Ship Line • Have a mid-ship forward spring line rigged and led up to the bow. • Drop the spring line over a piling or attach to a dock cleat • Turn the boat to starboard and give intermittent forward thrust. • With forward thrust, the spring line pulls the boat towards the dock. • Attach the bow line • Attach the remaining dock lines. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  23. Docking with a Bow Line • In heavier winds which will quickly blow the boat off the pier, a bow line may be used to aid in docking.  • Approach the pier at a 45 degree angle. • Use intermittent forward thrust that is just a little greater than the force of the wind. • The bow of the boat is brought up to the dock.     Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  24. Docking with a Bow Line • The bow of the boat is brought up to the dock.  • Secure a bow line to the bow's horn cleat and secure it to a cleat on the dock.  • The bow line’s length should be 75% to 100% the width of the beam. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  25. Docking with a Bow Line • The bow of the boat is brought up to the dock.  • Secure a bow line to the bow's horn cleat and secure it to a cleat on the dock.  • The bow line’s length should be 75% to 100% the width of the beam. • Turn the wheel away from the pier (or push the tiller toward the pier). • Apply a small amount of forward thrust to bring the stern alongside the pier.  Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  26. Docking with a Bow Line • The bow of the boat is brought up to the dock.   • Secure a bow line to the bow's horn cleat and secure it to a cleat on the dock.  • The bow line’s length should be 75% to 100% the width of the beam. • Turn the wheel away from the pier (or turn the tiller toward the pier). • Apply a small amount of forward thrust to bring the stern alongside the pier. • Attach the remaining dock (stern and spring) lines. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  27. Crosswind Blowing Towards The Dock • In a light wind approaching a pier can be an easy docking maneuver. • Just let the wind gently blow the boat into the pier. • However, in a heavy wind you may need to use reverse thrust to keep the boat from approaching too fast. • One may even have to use an bow line, with light forward thrust and the wheel turned toward the dock to prevent too fast of an approach. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  28. Wind Parallel To The Dock • In this situation it is easiest to dock approaching the wind. • Approach the dock at a 25 to 45 degree angle. • Use intermittent power and slow to a minimum controllable (headway) speed. • Dock with the wind forward rather than aft. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  29. Wind Parallel To The Dock • Dock with the wind forward rather than aft. • A brief application of power will swing the stern towards the dock. • If the boat has a right hand prop, a brief application of reverse power will further swing the stern towards the dock. • If the boat has a left hand prop, reverse may swing the stern away from the dock. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  30. Wind Parallel To The Dock • Dock with the wind forward rather than aft. • A brief application of power will swing the stern towards the dock. • If the boat has a right hand prop, a brief application of reverse power will further swing the stern towards the dock. • If the boat has a left hand prop, reverse may swing the stern away from the dock. • Attach a mid-ship forward spring line. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  31. Wind Parallel To The Dock • Dock with the wind forward rather than aft. • A brief application of power will swing the stern towards the dock. • If the boat has a right hand prop, a brief application of reverse power will further swing the stern towards the dock. • If the boat has a left hand prop, reverse may swing the stern away from the dock. • Attach a mid-ship forward spring line. • Attach the rest of the dock lines Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  32. Leaving a Pier • Spring lines greatly aid in getting underway and safely leaving a crowded pier. • Spring lines are also useful in leaving a when the sailboat is blown against the pier by wind. • For greatest leverage, the spring line should be secured to the bow (aft spring line) or stern (forward spring line) cleat and wrapped around a horn pier cleat which is at least midship. • The spring line is then brought back to the bow or stern, if necessary placed around one of the cleat's horns, and held by a crew member. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  33. Leaving a Pier with a Forward Spring Line • The use of a forward spring line will swing the bow out and allow for an easier departure. • One must be careful in retrieving the line to not foul the prop (wrap the line around a spinning propeller). • One may also use the rudder to vary the direction of boat thrust, to aid in holding the boat to or in swinging the boat away from the pier. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  34. Leaving a Pier with a Forward Spring Line • A forward spring line is placed from the stern of the sailboat to the dock. • In reverse gear, with the rudder in the midline, the sailboat is slowly backed. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  35. Leaving a Pier with a Forward Spring Line • A forward spring line is placed from the stern of the sailboat to the dock. • In reverse gear, with the rudder in the midline, the sailboat is slowly backed. • The spring line prevents the backward motion of the boat and swings the bow. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  36. Leaving a Pier with a Forward Spring Line • A forward spring line is placed from the stern of the sailboat to the dock. • In reverse gear, with the rudder in the midline, the sailboat is slowly backed. • The spring line prevents the backward motion of the boat and swings the bow. • Once clear, the line is released and the boat is placed in forward gear and steered away from the dock. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  37. Leaving a Pier with an Aft Spring Line • An aft bow spring line is placed from the bow of the sailboat to the dock. • With an aft bow spring, the wheel is initially turned away from the pier (tiller towards the pier) to hold the boat against the pier. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  38. Leaving a Pier with an Aft Spring Line • An aft bow spring line is placed from the bow of the sailboat to the dock. • With an aft bow spring, the wheel is initially turned away from the pier (tiller towards the pier) to hold the boat against the pier. • To pull away from the pier, turn the wheel towards the pier (tiller away from the pier) and give a small amount of forward power. • The spring line prevents the forward motion of the boat and swings the stern away from the dock. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  39. Leaving a Pier with an Aft Spring Line • An aft bow spring line is placed from the bow of the sailboat to the dock. • With an aft bow spring, the wheel is initially turned away from the pier (tiller towards the pier) to hold the boat against the pier. • To pull away from the pier, turn the wheel towards the pier (tiller away from the pier) and give a small amount of forward power. • The spring line prevents the forward motion of the boat and swings the stern away from the dock. • Once clear, the line is released and the boat is placed in reverse gear and steered away from the dock. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  40. Leaving a Pier with an Aft Spring Line • An aft bow spring line is placed from the bow of the sailboat to the dock. • With an aft bow spring, the wheel is initially turned away from the pier (tiller towards the pier) to hold the boat against the pier. • To pull away from the pier, turn the wheel towards the pier (tiller away from the pier) and give a small amount of forward power. • The spring line prevents the forward motion of the boat and swings the stern away from the dock. • Once clear, the line is released and the boat is placed in reverse gear and steered away from the dock. • Place in forward gear to leave the marina Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  41. Docking in a Slip - Wind Forward • This is one of the easier docking situations. • Using forward intermittent thrust and minimum speed to maintain steerage, slowly enter the slip. • The wind can be used as the ship's brake and will not cause prop-walk. • Instead of using reverse, place the transmission in neutral and the wind will blow boat back. • Secure the bow dock line first, since the stern line will not prevent the backward drifting of the sailboat. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  42. Docking in a Slip – Wind Aft • This is one of the hardest situations to dock a heavy sailboat. • Reverse must often be used to prevent the boat from approaching the slip to fast. • This will cause prop walk. • It is best to have the docking platform on the side that the prop-walk will push your boat. • It is always better to drift into the docking platform than another boat. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  43. Entering a Slip Using Spring Lines • If the wind is strong you may wish to approach the end of the docking platform, and use two spring lines to swing your boat into the slip. • Approach the end of the docking platform. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  44. Entering a Slip Using Spring Lines • Approach the end of the docking platform. • Attach forward quarter and aft bow spring lines. • The forward quarter spring line determines how far into the slip the sailboat will go and prevents the stern from hitting the adjacent sailboat Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  45. Entering a Slip Using Spring Lines • Approach the end of the docking platform. • Attach forward and aft spring lines. • The forward spring line determines how far into the slip the sailboat will go and prevents the stern from hitting the adjacent sailboat. • Apply intermittent reverse thrust Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  46. Entering a Slip Using Spring Lines • Approach the end of the docking platform. • Attach forward quarter and aft bow spring lines. • The forward spring line determines how far into the slip the sailboat will go and prevents the stern from hitting the adjacent sailboat. • Apply intermittent reverse thrust. • Lengthening the forward quarter spring line allows the boat to enter the slip. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  47. Entering a Slip Using Spring Lines • Approach the end of the docking platform. • Attach forward quarter and aft bow spring lines. • The forward quarter spring line determines how far into the slip the sailboat will go and prevents the stern from hitting the adjacent sailboat. • Apply intermittent reverse thrust. • Lengthening the forward quarter spring line allows the boat to enter the slip. • Finally, secure the boat to the docking platform with the remaining lines. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  48. Docking in a Slip - Crosswind • If the wind is light and the docking platform is downwind this can be an easy approach. • In heaver winds or if another boat is downwind, you may wish to approach the end of the docking platform and use two spring lines to swing your boat into the slip Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  49. Leaving a Slip • When backing out of a slip one must always compensate for prop-walk and the momentum of the sailboat. • Unlike driving a car, a sailboat does not instantly change direction when the gears are shifted from reverse to forward. • The wheel or tiller is adjusted according to the direction of movement and not the direction of the engine's thrust. • Intermittent thrust and minimum speed should be used when leaving a dock. • One crew member should be on deck with a pole and a fender to help prevent damage in the event of an inadvertent collision. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)

  50. Leaving a Slip • Slowly back out of the slip by using reverse thrust. • Very slow acceleration and intermittent power will help to reduce prop walk. • A right-hand prop will pull the stern to port. Quartermaster 6 - Boats (Docking)