patch panels in the sky a case for free space optics in data centers
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Patch Panels in the Sky: A Case for Free-Space Optics in Data Centers. Navid Hamed Azimi , Himanshu Gupta Vyas Sekar, Samir Das. Datacenter network design is hard!. Performance. Cost. Energy. Cabling. Expandability. Cooling. Adaptability. Existing Choices. Cost. Core.

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patch panels in the sky a case for free space optics in data centers

Patch Panels in the Sky:A Case for Free-Space Optics in Data Centers

Navid HamedAzimi,Himanshu Gupta

Vyas Sekar, Samir Das

datacenter network design is hard
Datacenter network design is hard!

Performance

Cost

Energy

Cabling

Expandability

Cooling

Adaptability

existing choices
Existing Choices

Cost

Core

Top of Rack (ToR)

Over subscribed

(tree, leaf spine,…)

Performance

existing choices1
Existing Choices

Cost

Over provisioned

(Fattree, Jellyfish,…)

Core

Top of Rack (ToR)

Over subscribed

(tree, leaf spine,…)

Performance

existing choices2
Existing Choices

Cost

Over provisioned

(Fattree, Jellyfish,…)

Core

Augmented

(c-Through , 3D Beam)

Top of Rack (ToR)

Over subscribed

(tree, leaf spine,…)

Performance

existing choices3
Existing Choices

Cost

Over provisioned

(Fattree, Jellyfish,…)

Augmented

(c-Through , 3D Beam)

Can we get here?

Over subscribed

(tree, leaf spine,…)

Performance

our vision
Our Vision
  • Core Coreless
  • Wired  Wireless
  • Static  Flexible

potential benefits of this vision
Potential Benefits of This Vision

Performance

Cost

Coreless

Cabling

Wireless

Cooling

Flexible

Energy

Expandability

Adaptability

slide9
Challenges in Realizing the Vision
  • Flexible wireless links
  • Network management
slide10
Outline
  • Flexible wireless links
  • Network management
  • Feasibility & cost
traditional rf is not sufficient
Traditional RF is not Sufficient

  • Wide beam

High interference

traditional rf is not sufficient1
Traditional RF is not Sufficient
  • Wide beam
  • Difficult to narrow

High interference

solution free space optical links fsos
Solution: Free Space Optical Links (FSOs)

  • No interference
  • High throughput
  • over long range
  • Easy to narrow beam
slide14
Concerns with FSOs
  • Cost : $30K
  • Size : 3 ft³
  • Power: 60w
  • Flexibility
why size cost power can be reduced
Why Size, Cost, Power Can be Reduced?
  • Traditional use : outdoor, long haul
    • High power
    • Weatherproof
  • Data centers: indoor, short haul
    • Low power
  • Feasible roadmap via commodity fiber optics
    • E.g. Small form transceivers (Optical SFP)
proof of concept 1 gbps
Proof of Concept (1 Gbps)

Fiber connected

to SFP (TX)

SFP (RX)

Lens

Lens

Mirror

Mirror

SFP : 2x$40

Lens : 2x$30

fso link throughput
FSO Link Throughput

PDF

  • Throughput

FSO link is the same as optical cable

fso link misalignment tolerance
FSO Link Misalignment Tolerance

0.7 mm

3 mm

  • Effect of vibrations, etc.

Movement tolerance

    • 0.7mm at destination
    • 3mm at source
  • TX
  • RX

FSO link is stable

slide19
FSOs (1Gbps)
  • Cost : $30K
  • Size : 3 ft³
  • Power: 60w
  • Flexibility
  • Cost : $140
  • Size : 1x4 in
  • Power: 0.3w
  • Flexibility
flexibility via switchable mirror
Flexibility via Switchable Mirror
  • Switchable Mirror: glass mirror
  • Electronic control, low latency

Ceiling Mirror

SM in “mirror”

mode

Receiver 1

Reciever2

Sender

flexibility via switchable mirror1
Flexibility via Switchable Mirror
  • Switchable Mirror: glass mirror
  • Electronic control, low latency

Ceiling Mirror

SM in “mirror”

mode

Receiver 1

Reciever2

Sender

Receiver 1

Reciever2

slide22
Outline
  • Flexible wireless links
  • Network management
  • Feasibility & cost
management pre configuration
Management: Pre-Configuration

Input: FSO#, SM#,…

Output: Candidate links (Alignment of each SM)

Receiver 1

Reciever2

Sender

23

management reconfiguration
Management: Reconfiguration

Input: Traffic

Output: Run-time topology

Receiver 1

Reciever2

Sender

24

current solutions simple heuristics
Current Solutions: Simple Heuristics
  • Pre-Configuration : Regular Random Graph
  • Reconfiguration

Only reconfigure for large flows

Only delete a link if network remains connected

slide26
Outline
  • Flexible laser link
  • Management
  • Feasibility & cost
throughput
Throughput
  • 512 racks, 48 server/rack, hotspots traffic, flow level simulations

FSO based 2-4x improvement

cost comparison
Cost Comparison

FSO based: Near 10G performance with 65% of cost

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Data center network is challenging
  • Our vision: Fully flexible, coreless, wireless network
  • Key enablers : FSO + switchable mirrors
  • Early promise: ~ 10Gbps performance @ 65% cost
  • Future work: Improve FSO, better management
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