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Section 19.1 . Looking at Meat, Poultry, Fish and Shellfish. Your choices. Meat includes: Beef From mature cattle Lamb From young sheep Pork From hogs Veal From young cattle. Poultry refers to birds raised for food, such as: Chicken Turkey Duck Goose.

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section 19 1

Section 19.1

Looking at Meat, Poultry, Fish and Shellfish

your choices
Your choices
  • Meat includes:
    • Beef
      • From mature cattle
    • Lamb
      • From young sheep
    • Pork
      • From hogs
    • Veal
      • From young cattle

Within each category, you can choose from many different fresh or frozen cuts.

  • Cut: Refers to a piece of meat, poultry, or fish as it is sold in the marketplace.
  • Meat, poultry, fish, and shellfish are all nutritious foods.
  • All three provide:
    • B vitamins
    • Phosphorus
    • Certain trace minerals
fat and cholesterol content
Fat and Cholesterol Content
  • All animal muscle contains about the same amount of cholesterol per ounce.
  • Most fish is very low in fat.
  • The amount of fat varies depending on the cut and the preparation method.
  • Beef has the largest amount of saturated fat.
  • In poultry, most of the visible fat is located in the skin and layers under the skin.
  • Marbling: Small white flecks of fat that are visible within the muscle tissue of meat.
factors affecting tenderness
Factors Affecting Tenderness
  • The tenderness of meat can affect your choice of cooking method.
  • Different cuts of meat, poultry, and fish may vary in tenderness.
  • A cut may contain four basic types of tissue:
    • Muscle tissue
    • Connective tissue
    • Fat
    • Bone
  • When it comes to tenderness, the most important factors are muscle tissue and connective tissue.
composition of meat poultry
Composition of Meat & Poultry
  • Muscle Fibers are thinnest in young animals and in parts of the animal that get little exercise. For example, the back.
  • The thickest fibers are located where there is most exercise, such as the legs.
  • Connective tissue affects the tenderness of the meat as well.

Collagen: a thin, white or transparent connective tissue that softens and turns into a gelatin when cooked.

  • Elastin: a yellowish, very tough connective tissue. It cannot be softened by the heat. Other tenderizing methods such as pounding, cutting, or grinding must be used to break it down.
fish muscles are different
Fish muscles are different
  • Instead of long fibers found in meat and poultry, fish have very short fibers that are arranged by layers.
  • All fish and shellfish are very tender.
comparing costs
Comparing Costs
  • Tender cuts are often more expensive than less tender cuts.
  • Boneless meat and poultry is generally more expensive that cuts sold with the bone.