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19.1 Introduction

19.1 Introduction

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19.1 Introduction

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  1. Chapter 19Electronic Electrochemical Chemicaland Thermal Machining ProcessesEIN 3390 Manufacturing ProcessesSummer A, 2011

  2. Non-traditional machining (NTM) processes have several advantages • Complex geometries are possible • Extreme surface finish • Tight tolerances • Delicate components • Little or no burring or residual stresses • Brittle materials with high hardness can be machined • Microelectronic or integrated circuits (IC) are possible to mass produce 19.1 Introduction

  3. Four basic groups of material removal using NTM processes • Chemical: • Chemical reaction between a liquid reagent and workpiece results in etching • Electrochemical • An electrolytic reaction at workpiece surface for removal of material • Thermal • High temperatures in very localized regions evaporate materials, for example, EDM • Mechanical • High-velocity abrasives or liquids remove materials NTM Processes

  4. Machining processes that involve chip formation have a number of limitations • Large amounts of energy • Unwanted distortion • Residual stresses • Burrs • Delicate or complex geometries may be difficult or impossible Limitations of Conventional Machining Processes

  5. Typical machining parameters • Feed rate (5 – 200 in./min.) • Surface finish (60 – 150 min) AA – Arithmetic Average • Dimensional accuracy (0.001 – 0.002 in.) • Workpiece/feature size (25 x 24 in.); 1 in. deep • NTM processes typically have lower feed rates and require more power consumption • The feed rate in NTM is independent of the material being processed Conventional End Milling vs. NTM

  6. Table 19-1 Summary of NTM Processes

  7. Typically involves metals, but ceramics and glasses may be etched • Material is removed from a workpiece by selectively exposing it to a chemical reagent or etchant • Gel milling- gel is applied to the workpiece in gel form. • Maskant- selected areas are covered and the remaining surfaces are exposed to the etchant. This is the most common method of CHM. 19.2 Chemical Machining Processes

  8. Masking • Several different methods • Cut-and-peel • Scribe-and-peel • Screen printing • Etch rates are slow in comparison to other NTM processes Figure 19-1 Steps required to produce a stepped contour by chemical machining.

  9. Defects in Etching Figure 19-2 Typical chemical milling defects: (a) overhang: deep cuts with improper agitation; (b) islands: isolated high spots from dirt, residual maskant, or work material inhomogeneity; (c) dishing: thinning in center due to improper agitation or stacking of parts in tank. • If baths are not agitated properly, defects result

  10. Advantages Process is relatively simple Does not require highly skilled labor Induces no stress or cold working in the metal Can be applied to almost any metal Large areas Virtually unlimited shape Thin sections Disadvantages Requires the handling of dangerous chemicals Disposal of potentially harmful byproducts Metal removal rate is slow Advantages and Disadvantages of Chemical Machining

  11. 19.3 Electrochemical Machining Process • Electrochemical machining (ECM) removes material by anodic dissolution with a rapidly flowing electrolyte • The tool is the cathode and the workpiece is the electrolyte Figure 19-17 Schematic diagram of electrochemical machining process (ECM).

  12. Table 19-3 Material Removal Rates for ECM of Alloys Assuming 100% Current Efficiency

  13. Pulsed-current ECM (PECM) • Pulsed on and off for durations of approximately 1ms • Pulsed currents are also used in electrochemical micro machining (EMM) • Electrochemical polishing is a modification of the ECM process • Much slower penetration rate Electrochemical Processing

  14. Advantages ECM is well suited for the machining of complex two-dimensional shapes Delicate parts may be made Difficult-to machine geometries Poorly machinable materials may be processed Little or no tool wear Disadvantages Initial tooling can be timely and costly Environmentally harmful by-products Advantages and Disadvantages of Electrochemical Machining

  15. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) removes metal by discharging electric current from a pulsating DC power supply across a thin interelectrode gap • The gap is filled by a dielectric fluid, which becomes locally ionized • Two different types of EDM exist based on the shape of the tool electrode • Ram EDM/ sinker EDM • Wire EDM 19.4 Electrical Discharge Machining

  16. Figure 19-21 EDM or spark erosion machining of metal, using high-frequency spark discharges in a dielectric, between the shaped tool (cathode) and the work (anode). The table can make X-Y movements.

  17. Figure 19-21 EDM or spark erosion machining of metal, using high-frequency spark discharges in a dielectric, between the shaped tool (cathode) and the work (anode). The table can make X-Y movements.

  18. EDM Processes • Slow compared to conventional machining • Produce a matte surface • Complex geometries are possible • Often used in tool and die making Figure 19-22 Schematic diagram of equipment for wire EDM using a moving wire electrode.

  19. Figure 19-23 (left) Examples of wire EDM workpieces made on NC machine (Hatachi). Figure 19-24 (above) SEM micrograph of EDM surface on top of a ground surface in steel. The spherical nature of debris on the surface is in evidence around the craters (300 x). EDM Processes

  20. MRR = (C I)/(Tm1.23), Where MRR – material removal rate in in.3/min.; C – constant of proportionality equal to 5.08 in US customary units; I – discharge current in amps; Tm – melting temperature of workpiece material, 0F. Example: A certain alloy whose melting point = 2,0000 F is to be machined in EDM. If a discharge current = 25A, what is the expected metal removal rate? MRR = (C I)/(Tm1.23) = (5.08 x 25)/(2,0001.23) = 0.011 in.3/min. Effect of Current on-time and Discharge Current on Crater Size

  21. Figure 19-25 The principles of metal removal for EDM.

  22. From Fig 19 – 25: we have the conclusions: • Generally higher duty cycles with higher currents and lower frequencies are used to maximize MRR. • Higher frequencies and lower discharge currents are used to improve surface finish while reducing MRR. • Higher frequencies generally cause increased tool wear. Effect of Current on-time and Discharge Current on Crater Size

  23. Graphite is the most widely used tool electrode • The choice of electrode material depends on its machinability and coast as well as the desired MRR, surface finish, and tool wear • The dielectric fluid has four main functions • Electrical insulation • Spark conductor • Flushing medium • Coolant Considerations for EDM

  24. Table 19-5 Melting Temperatures for Selected EDM Workpiece Materials

  25. Advantages Applicable to all materials that are fairly good electrical conductors Hardness, toughness, or brittleness of the material imposes no limitations Fragile and delicate parts Disadvantages Produces a hard recast surface Surface may contain fine cracks caused by thermal stress Fumes can be toxic Advantages and Disadvantages of EDM

  26. No HW assigned. HW for Chapter 19