323 MorphologyThe Structure of Words5. Morphological Trees(This page last updated 26 NO 06) 5.1 Compounding Lexical compounds are words that contain at least two stems (lexemes). Up to this point all the stems have simplex in that they contained only one stem. Various kinds of categorical stems may be combined into a compound lexical stem. E.g N+N: dog+house A+N: black+bear V+N: run+way N+A: fat+free N+V: house+sit A+A: blue+green N+N compounds are productive, but the others seem to be less productive. Lexical compounds are formed from two or more stems, but the stems are not word-forms. With very few exceptions, no inflectional affix can be added to each stem independently. Inflectional affixes are added to the compound stem, though this point may be hard to illustrate. It is the first stem that rarely carries an inflectional marker: E.g. toothache, *teethache footprint, *feetprint birdfood, *birdsfood greenhouse, *greenerhouse bluenose,*bluestnose runway, *ranway
Incorporation is a process where an argument of the verb, usually the direct object, is adjoined to the verb, with varying results in languages which incorporate. It is common in N. American indigenous languages and in Chutkotko-Kamchatkan languages of Siberia, and possibly in other languages. Inflectional affixes may occur with the incorporated noun, but not in all of them. (See H p. 86.) H. proposes the term interfix for languages that insert a morpheme that appears to be a stem-extender ion compound words. 5.2 Hierarchical Structure HDR in Compounds 5.3 Hierarchical Structure and Head Dependent Relations Like syntax, complex words can be represented in structures as well as tree structures. Consider, for example, doable. As we already know, it consists of a base a derivational suffix: [DO]—[ABLE]. The former is a verb stem and the latter is a suffix. H says that the category of the combined unit is an adjective. How do we know this? Since DO is a verb stem, DOABLE cannot inherit the category A from DO. The only other source is from the suffix ABLE. All adjectives with the suffix ABLE that are derived from verbs suggests that the suffix ABLE carries the information that the derived stem is an adjective stem. The following tree contains the requisite information: 5.1 Compounding
5.3 Hierarchical Structure and Head Dependent Relations The lexical entry for ABLE properly contains that information as well as the information what it must be adjoined to: It must be adjoined to a verb stem. Note that derivational affixes are adjoined to bases, not to inflected word-forms. Derivational affixes may be adjoined to bases which are not stems: E.g. de-fer, re-fer, in-fer, con-fer, pre-fer; re-bel; in-tend, con-tend, pre-tend, at-tend. These examples show that derivational affixes are adjoined to bases. Whether the base is a stem is immaterial to the derivational process. The base FER and other similar bases must contain the information that it is not a lexical stem: The prefix RE, which is adjoined to two of the above bases ,has the following entry:
5.3 Hierarchical Structure and Head Dependent Relations Occasionally, the base may show a morphophonemic alternation: E.g. de-stroy, de-struc-t-ion; re-duce, re-duc-t-ion. The lexical entry for DUCE/DUC is less complex:
5.3 Hierarchical Structure and Head Dependent Relations Note: the feature [+Root] indicates a morpheme to which derivational affixes may be adjoined. Its opposite, [-Root], indicates a morpheme to which derivational affixes may not be adjoined. The feature [-Root] defines affixes. We never got around to clitics. Clitics are [-Lexical]. They fall into at least two classes: operators and pronouns. They are often reduced phonologically and They are adjoined to phrases , pronouns , auxiliary verbs, and perhaps other non-lexical items: E.g. Can’t <- can not; won’t <- will not; I’ll <- I will; he’d <- he would. E.g. See ya (phonologically one word) <- see you, see’em <- see him or <- see them. E.g. His father’s house; the Queen of England’s hat.