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Leadership and Creating Trust. Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 8/e Stephen P. Robbins. Chapter 10. After reading this chapter, you should be able to:. Summarize the conclusions of trait theories Identify the limitations of behavioral theories Describe Fiedler’s contingency model

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leadership and creating trust

Leadership andCreating Trust

Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 8/e

Stephen P. Robbins

Chapter 10

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

after reading this chapter you should be able to
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
  • Summarize the conclusions of trait theories
  • Identify the limitations of behavioral theories
  • Describe Fiedler’s contingency model
  • Summarize the path-goal theory
  • List the contingency variables in the leader-participation model

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

after reading this chapter you should be able to1
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
  • Differentiate transformational from transactional leadership
  • Describe the pros and cons of charismatic leadership
  • Explain the role of emotional intelligence in leadership effectiveness
  • Identify situations when leadership may not be relevant
  • Summarize how leaders can build trust

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

leadership
Leadership
  • Ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

trait theories 1990s
ambition and energy

desire to lead

honesty and integrity

self-confidence

intelligence

high self-monitoring

job-relevant knowledge

Trait Theories – 1990s

Seven traits seemed to differ leaders from non-leaders:

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

slide6
Researchers began organizing traits around the Big Five personality framework

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

slide7
Resulted in consistent and strong support for traits as predictors of leadership

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

slide8
Traits do a better job at predicting the emergence of leaders than in actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

behavioral theories
Behavioral Theories

Assumes people can be trained to lead

Researched the behaviors of specific leaders

Provides the basis of design for training programs

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

ohio state studies
Ohio State Studies

Developed two categories of leadership behavior

Initiating structure - attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals

Consideration - concern for followers’ comfort, well-being, status, and satisfaction

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

university of michigan studies
University of Michigan Studies

Employee-oriented - emphasize interpersonal relations

Production-oriented - emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

limitations of behavioral theories
Limitations of Behavioral Theories
  • Did not identify consistent relationships between leadership behavior and group performance
  • Missing consideration of the situational factors that influence success and failure

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

contingency theories
Contingency Theories
  • Fiedler
  • Path-goal
  • Leader-participation

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

fiedler leadership model
Fiedler Leadership Model
  • Effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader
  • Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

fiedler contingency dimensions
Fiedler Contingency Dimensions
  • Leader-member relations
  • Task structure
  • Position power

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

fiedler model
Fiedler Model

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

leader member exchange theory
Leader-Member Exchange Theory
  • Leaders do differentiate among followers
  • Disparities are far from random
  • Followers with in-group status have:
    • higher performance ratings
    • lower turnover intentions
    • greater satisfaction with their superiors
    • higher overall satisfaction than those in the out-group

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

path goal theory
Path-Goal Theory
  • Leader’s job is to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the direction and support needed to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the organization
  • Acceptable, Motivational

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

path goal theory1
Path-Goal Theory
  • Directiveleader
  • Supportive leader
  • Participative leader
  • Achievement-oriented leader

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

path goal theory2
Path-Goal Theory

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

leader participation model
Leader-Participation Model
  • Leader behavior must adjust to reflect the task structure
  • Sequential set of rules that should be followed in determining the form and amount of participation in decision making

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

slide23
Transactional leaders - motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements

Transformational leaders - inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

charismatic leadership theory
Charismatic Leadership Theory
  • Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

charismatic leaders
Charismatic Leaders
  • Have vision
  • Willing to take risks to achieve that vision
  • Sensitive to both environmental constraints and follower needs
  • Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

how charismatic leaders influence followers
How Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers
  • Articulates an appealing vision
  • Communicates high performance expectations
  • Conveys, through words and actions, a new set of values
  • Makes self-sacrifices and engages in unconventional behavior to demonstrate convictions about the vision

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

slide27
Increasing body of research shows impressive correlations between charismatic leadership and high performance and satisfaction among followers

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

contemporary issues
Contemporary Issues
  • Role of emotional intelligence in leadership effectiveness
  • Ethical implications in leadership
  • Need to modify leadership style to cultural differences

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

emotional intelligence ei
Emotional Intelligence (EI)
  • Recent studies indicate that EI is the best predictorof who will emerge as a leader

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

what is trust
What is Trust?
  • A positive expectation that another will not--through words, actions, or decisions--act opportunistically
  • Familiarity, Risk

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

trust dimensions
Trust Dimensions

Integrity

Competence

Consistency

Loyalty

Openness

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

three types of trust
Three Types of Trust
  • Deterrence-based
  • Knowledge-based
  • Identification-based

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

how to build trust
How to Build Trust
  • Practice openness
  • Be fair
  • Speak your feelings
  • Tell the truth
  • Show consistency
  • Fulfill your promises
  • Maintain confidences
  • Demonstrate competence

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

summary
Summary
  • Summarized the conclusions of trait theories
  • Identified the limitations of behavioral theories
  • Described Fiedler’s contingency model
  • Summarized the path-goal theory
  • Listed the contingency variables in the leader-participation model

© 2005 Prentice-Hall

summary1
Summary
  • Differentiated transformational from transactional leadership
  • Described the pros and cons of charismatic leadership
  • Explained the role of emotional intelligence in leadership effectiveness
  • Identified situations when leadership may not be relevant
  • Summarized how leaders can build trust

© 2005 Prentice-Hall