LAKES AND PONDS ECOSYSTEM. Ponds and Lakes. Range in size from just a few square meters to thousands of square kilometers. Ponds may be seasonal, lasting just a couple of months (such as sessile pools). Lakes may exist for hundreds of years or more. Ponds and Lakes.
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Crater Lake , Oregon
Profundal (aphotic) zone
The area of the bottom.
Many groups and varieties of animals live here, a few are worms, crustaceans, and protozoa.
The life in this zone is mostly made up of bottom dwellers which get most of their food from dead and decaying organisms.
most of the organisms in the benthic zone are scavengers because they depend on dead flesh as their main food source.
A lake is bigger than a pond, and is too deep to support rooted plants except near the shore. Some lakes are big enough for waves to be produced.
Lakes may exist for hundreds of years or more.
Lakes are often classified as oligotrophic or eutrophic, depending on the amount of organic matter produced.
Taal volcano lake
the top-most layer in a thermally stratified lake.
It is warmer and typically has a higher pH and dissolved oxygen concentration than the hypolimnion.
It typically mixed as a result of surface wind-mixing.
Free to exchange dissolved gases (ie O2 and CO2) with the atmosphere.
It contains the most phytoplankton.
(sometimes metalimnion) is a thin but distinct layer in a large body of fluid (e.g. water, such as an ocean or lake, or air, such as an atmosphere).
Temperature changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below.
Thermoclines may be a semi-permanent feature of the body of water in which they occur, or they may form temporarily in response to phenomena such as the radiative heating/cooling of surface water during the day/night.
Factors that affect the depth and thickness of a thermocline include seasonal weather variations, latitude, and local environmental conditions, such as tides and currents.
The hypolimnion is the dense, bottom layer of water in a thermally-stratified lake. It is the layer that lies below the thermocline.
Typically the hypolimnion is the coldest layer of a lake in summer, and the warmest layer during winter. Being at depth, it is isolated from surface wind-mixing during summer, and usually receives insufficient irradiance (light) for photosynthesis to occur.
In deep, temperate lakes, the bottom-most waters of the hypolimnion are typically close to 4°C throughout the year. The hypolimnion may be much warmer in lakes at warmer latitudes.
A pond is a small, shallow body of fresh, standing water in which relatively calmwater and extensive plant growth.
The amount of dissolved oxygen may vary greatly during a day. In really cold places, the entire pond can freeze solid.
Water temperature is fairly even from top to bottom and changes with air temperature.
Commonly found in the central or lower Mississippi Basin
Waters are described as being brownish in color
Many dry out during parts of the year.
Willows, bay trees mixed with cypress trees, grow along the shore and are often found out in the waters.
Bog Ponds are often found in the moist temperature regions of North America.
Water is highly acidic and often muddy.
Alders and cedar trees dominate
Floating-leaf plants usually cover the surface.
Where streams widen and the speeds of its currents slow down tremendously.
The shallow part of the pond usually has an abundance of pondweeds, cattails, stoneworts and other plants.
Floating leafy plants on the surface of the water, such as lilies and water shields.
Formed by glaciers
Bottoms range from being rocky, graveled or muddy.
Most of the time Mountain Ponds have ice in them and they usually dry up at some point during the summer.
Sedges grow along its margins. In spite of the pond’s short summer season, a variety of animals and plants live in these icy waters.
Man-made ponds built to help keep the farmlands fertile.
It should also have a spillway to control the water level.
Farm ponds usually become abundant in fish, and are usually good waters for swimming and boating.
They should also fill from seepage, not from another stream which would fill the basin of the pond with silt and eventually kill the pond.
Green and Gold
Great Crested Grebe
Great White Pelican