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The Mogul Empire 1526-1857. Babur 1526-1530. He founded the empire in 1526 when he defeated a Delhi sultan His army of 12,000 defeated the sultan ’ s 100,000 men Moguls were descendants of the Mongols, Turks, Iranians and Afghans. Babur. Educated warrior Fond of poetry

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babur 1526 1530
Babur 1526-1530
  • He founded the empire in 1526 when he defeated a Delhi sultan
  • His army of 12,000 defeated the sultan’s 100,000 men
  • Moguls were descendants of the Mongols, Turks, Iranians and Afghans
babur
Babur
  • Educated warrior
  • Fond of poetry
  • Created Persian gardens wherever he conquered, missed cool climate of his homeland (see painting)
babur1
Babur
  • He had to fight to keep order in his society
  • Victory at Kanwaha on March 10, 1527
    • Became absolute ruler of North India
  • Spent the rest of his life trying to organize his empire & build his capital- Agra
  • Died 12/126/1530
    • Empire passed to his son Hymayan
humayan
Humayan
  • Walks the fine line between tragedy & embarassment
  • Lost empire to rival, had to flee to Safavid empire (Persia / Iran) for help
  • Son Akbar born during exile, left behind with mother and guardian
slide6

Humayan’s Tomb

  • With help of Safavids, Humayan regained the empire, 1555
  • Shortly after, fell down stairs of his observatory, and died (1556)
akbar 1556 1605
Akbar 1556-1605
  • He was Babur’s grandson and took the throne at 13
  • He spent most of his reign making and changing administrative policies
  • Added many new territories to the empire and built the largest army in Mogul history
akbar
Akbar
  • He was one of the first Mogul rulers to effectively rule the diverse ethnic make-up of the empire
  • Akbar, a Muslim, appointed Hindus to high ranking positions
  • He encouraged intermarriage
  • He accepted all religions and sects
jahangir
Jahangir
  • Often drunken and cruel, his later years found him often incapacitated by opium and alcohol abuse
  • Married a 34 year-old Persian widow he renamed Nur Jahan

Painting commissioned by Akbar celebrating the birth of Jahangir

jahangir1
Jahangir
  • Nur Jahan was the de facto ruler of the Mogul empire for the last half of Jahangir’s reign, due to his laziness and inebriation.
    • She schemed to get her relatives in positions of power
  • Replaced by his son Prince Khurram, who he renamed Shah Jahan (“Emperor of the World”)
shah jahan 1627 1658
Shah Jahan 1627-1658
  • Prince Khurram took the throne at 35 and changed his name to Shah Jahan
  • He spent most of his time trying to expand south
shah jhan
Shah Jhan
  • He was a competent commander with a strict sense of justice
  • During his rule he built palaces, mosques and gardens
  • The best known structure is the Taj Mahal
  • When he became sick his sons fought for control of the empire
shah jahan
Shah Jahan
  • Eventually his son Aurangzeb captured the throne and imprisoned his father at Fort Agra because he supported Dara Shukoh (an older son)
  • Although it sounds harsh, most Mogul rulers killed their fathers upon succession
taj mahal
TAJ MAHAL
  • Shah Jahan built the mausoleum for his wife Mumtaz Mahal in Agra
  • It is constructed of materials from India and all over Asia
mughal expansion under aurangzeb
Mughal Expansion Under Aurangzeb
  • Aurangzeb also known as Alamgir (“World Conqueror”)
  • Aurangzeb launched military campaigns that eventually added most of the Deccan and South India to the empire
  • The cost of these expeditions would later weaken the empire