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Lecture 2: Basic principles of electromagnetic magnetic radiation (EMR). Prepared by Rick Lathrop 9/99 Updated 9/04. Basic interactions between EMR and the earth surface. Reflection: specular reflection or scattering Absorption Transmission. q 1 q 2. q 1 = q 2.

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lecture 2 basic principles of electromagnetic magnetic radiation emr

Lecture 2: Basic principles of electromagnetic magnetic radiation (EMR)

Prepared by Rick Lathrop 9/99

Updated 9/04

basic interactions between emr and the earth surface
Basic interactions between EMR and the earth surface
  • Reflection:

specular reflection or scattering

  • Absorption
  • Transmission

q1q2

q1 = q2

emission

EMR re-emitted as thermal energy

Shorter ls refracted more

first law of thermodynamics
First law of thermodynamics
  • Principle of conservation of energy
  • Energy can neither be created or destroyed, it can only be transformed
  • Incident E = R + A + T

E

R

A

T

Adapted from Lillesand & Kiefer Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation

units of emr measurement
Units of EMR measurement
  • Irradiance - radiant flux incident on a receiving surface from all directions, per unit surface area, W m-2
  • Radiance - radiant flux emitted or scattered by a unit area of surface as measured through a solid angle, W m-2 sr-1
  • Reflectance - fraction of the incident flux that is reflected by a medium
dual nature of emr
Dual nature of EMR
  • EMR as a wave
  • EMR as a particle (photon)
wave nature of emr
Wave nature of EMR
  • c = n * l

where

  • c = 3 x 108 m/sec
  • n = frequency, measured in hertz (cycles/sec)

l = wavelength

  • inverse relationship between wavelength and frequency
emr wavelength vs frequency as l gets shorter v goes higher
EMR wavelength vs. frequencyas l gets shorter, v goes higher

l = 10 mm

n = 1013 Hz

l = 1.0 mm

n = 1014 Hz

l = 0.1 mm

n = 1015 Hz

wave nature of emr translating between wavelength and frequency
Wave nature of EMR: translating between wavelength and frequency
  • c = n * l

where

  • c = 3 x 108 m/sec

Example: n = 600 Mhz l = ?

n = c / l or l = c /n

l = 3 x 108 m/sec / 600 x 106 hz =

l = 3 x 108 m/sec / 6 x 108 hz = 0.5 m

What EMR region is this wavelength? microwave

the electromagnetic spectrum1
The electromagnetic spectrum

Comparative Sizes: from subatomic to human scales

Atom Nucleus

Molecule

Human & larger

Pinhead

Atom

Bacteria

Honeybee

adapted from NY Times graphic 4/8/2003

the visible spectrum
The visible spectrum
  • The visible spectrum is only a tiny window
  • We are blind to 99.99% of the energy in the universe
  • One of the strengths of remote sensing is that we have created devices that allow us to see beyond the range of human vision
herschel discovers infrared light
Herschel Discovers Infrared Light
  • Sir Frederick Herschel (1738-1822) used a prism to split sunlight to create a spectrum and then measured the temperature of each color. He also included a control just outside the visible colors. He found to his surprise that the control actually had a higher temperature than the visible colors. Based on this observation, he concluded that there must be additional light energy beyond the visible, now known as near infrared.

Incidentally if the peak of sunlight energy is in the shorter visible wavelengths, why did Herschel find the infrared to be hotter. Due to the nonlinear nature of refraction, his prism concentrated the infrared light, while dispersing the shorter wavelength visible colors.

http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/classroom_activities/herschel_experiment.html

slide13

Gee Whiz:

Why do UV and not NIR rays cause sunburn?

particle nature of emr
Particle nature of EMR
  • E = h * n = (h * c)/l

where

  • E = energy of a photon, measured in joules
  • h = Planck’s constant 6.626 x 10-34 J sec
  • inverse relationship between wavelength and energy
why do uv and not nir rays cause sunburn
Why do UV and not NIR rays cause sunburn?
  • E = (h * c)/l = (6.626 x 10-34 J sec)(3 x 108 m/sec)/l = 19.878x10-26 J m / l
  • UV l = 0.3 mm
    • E = 19.878x10-26 J m / 0.3x10-6m = 66.26 x 10-20 J
  • NIR l = 0.9 mm
    • E = 19.878x10-26 J m / 0.9x10-6m = 22.09 x 10-20 J

UV has approximately 3x the amount of energy per quanta

slide16

Gee Whiz:

Which emits more energy – the Sun or Earth?

relationship between temperature and emr
Relationship between temperature and EMR
  • M = s * T4

where

  • M = total radiant exittance W m-2
  • s = Stefan-Boltzman constant 5.6697 x 10-8 W m-2 K-4
  • T = temperature in Kelvin (K)
    • 0oC = 273.15K
relationship between temperature and emr1
Relationship between temperature and EMR
  • M = s * T4

where

  • What is M for the Sun? T= 6000K
    • (5.6697 x 10-8 W m-2 K-4)(6000K)4 =
    • (5.6697 x 10-8 W m-2 K-4)(1.296 x 1015 K4)=

= 7.35 x 107 W m-2

  • What is M for the Earth? T= 300K (27oC)

- (5.6697 x 10-8 W m-2 K-4)(3000K)4 = 4.59 x 102 W m-2

slide19

Relationship between temperature and EMRObjects emit energy over a range of wavelengths. As the temperature of the object increases, its radiant flux increases. The wavelength of maximum flux depends on the temperature of the object.

Blackbody at temperature T1

Radiant Flux

T1 > T2

Blackbody at temperature T2

Wavelength

slide20

Gee Whiz:

Why is the outside of a candle’s flame red, while the inner flame is blue?

relationship between wavelength and temperature
Relationship between wavelength and temperature
  • lm = A / T
  • where
  • lm = wavelength of max radiant exittance
  • A = 2898 mm K
  • T = temperature K
  • Inverse relationship between temperature and lm
relationship between wavelength and temperature1
Relationship between wavelength and temperature
  • lm = A / T

where A = 2898 mm K

  • What is lm for the Sun? T= 6000K
  • lm = 2898 mm K/6000K = 0.483um
  • lm for the sun is in the visible
  • What is lm for the Earth? T= 300K (27oC)
  • lm = 2898 mm K/300K = 9.7mm
  • lm for the earth is in the thermal IR
slide23

Gee Whiz:

Why do humans see in the ‘visible’ and not the NIR?

human color vision
Human Color Vision
  • Human eye contains 2 types of photoreceptors: rods and cones
  • Rods are more numerous and more sensitive to the amount of visible light but are not sensitive to color
  • 3 types of cones: roughly sensitive to blue (445nm), green (535nm) and red (575nm)

For more info on color vision go to:

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/vision/colviscon.html#c1

slide26

Gee Whiz:

Why is the sky blue and clouds white?

atmospheric windows
Atmospheric windows
  • Specific wavelengths where a majority of the EMR is absorbed by the atmosphere
  • Wavelength regions of little absorption known as atmospheric windows

Graphic from http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/RemoteSensingAtmosphere/

atmospheric interference with emr

Ref

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 1.1 um

Atmospheric interference with EMR
  • Shorter wavelengths strongly scattered, adding to the received signal
  • Longer wavelengths absorbed, subtracting from the received signal

Signal decreased by absorption

Signal increased by scattering

Adapted from Jensen, 1996, Introductory Digital Image Processing

why is the sky blue and clouds white
Why is the sky blue and clouds white?

Incoming sunlight

Clouds scatter all ls of visible light, appear white

Mie scattering

Air molecules scatter short l blue light, longer ls transmitted

Rayleigh scattering

fundamental assumptions
Fundamental assumptions
  • Objects that are related can be detected, identified, and described by analyzing the energy that is reflected or emitted from them
  • Measurements over several bands make up a “spectral response pattern” or signature
  • This signature is different for different objects
  • This difference can be analyzed
slide33

Gee Whiz:

Why are plants green?

slide34

Chlorophyll pigment is contained in minute structures called plastids that are found in the leave’s parenchyma cells. Chlorophyll differentially absorbs red and blue wavelengths of light, there is less absorption in the green and nearly no absorption in the near IR.

Graphic from: http://iusd.k12.ca.us/uhs/cs2/leaf_cross-section.htm

slide35
As light waves move from medium of one density to another (e.g., from water to air), the waves are refracted (i.e., changes direction).

Graphic from: http://www.olympusmicro.com/primer/lightandcolor/refraction.html

slide36

How plant leaves reflect lightAs light moves from a hydrated cell to an intercellular space it gets refracted, sometimes multiple times. Eventually, some light may be scattered back out through the upper leaf surface and some transmitted down through the leaf.

NIR light (which is not absorbed) is scattered within leaf: some reflected back, some transmitted through

Blue & red light strongly absorbed by chlorophyll. Green light is not as strongly absorbed

Cross-section of leaf

how plant leaves reflect light

Sunlight

B G R NIR

Incoming light

Reflected light

Leaf

Transmitted light

How plant leaves reflect light
an example plant leaves
An example-plant leaves
  • Chlorophyll absorbs large % of red and blue for photosynthesis- and strongly reflects in green (.55mm)
  • Peak reflectance in leaves in near infrared (.7-1.2mm) up to 60% of infrared energy per leaf is scattered up or down due to cell wall size, shape, leaf condition (age, stress, disease), etc.
  • Reflectance in Mid IR (2-4mm) influenced by water content-water absorbs IR energy, so live leaves reduce mid IR return
slide39

Spectral reflectance characteristics are both spatially and temporally variable. For example, each leaf (even within the same species) is different and can change. Thus you should think of a spectral signature as more as a spectral “envelope”.

slide40

Gee Whiz:

Why do plants turn yellow as they senesce?

slide41
As a leaf senesces, the cellular structure starts to break down and may change the NIR as well as the visible reflectance.
slide42

A leaf’s chlorophyll (1) begins to break down as the leaf senesces (as in the autumn). Accessory plant pigments (such as carotenoids and anthocyanins) are also found in the leaf cells but are generally masked by chlorophyll. Without chlorophyll, these pigments dominate. Carotenoids absorb blue to blue green wavelengths and thus appear yellow to orange (2). Anthocyanins absorb blue to green wavelengths and thus appear magenta (purple) to red (3) .

Graphic from: http://www.fs.fed.us/conf/fall/leafchng_nf.htm

extra puzzler 1
Extra Puzzler 1
  • FM Radio waves have a frequency of approx. 100MHz and this energy passes through your body every second of every day with no harm done! Why?
extra puzzler 11
Extra Puzzler 1
  • Radio wave energy passes through your body every second of every day with no harm done! Why?
  • E = (h * n) = (6.626 x 10-34 J sec) (100MHz)= 662.6 x 10-28 J = 6.626 x 10-26 J
  • Remember NIR light (which is harmless) has an quanta E of 2.209 x 10-19 J, or approx. 7 orders of magnitude higher.
extra puzzler 2
Extra Puzzler 2
  • If a lava flow has a temperature of approximately 1000oC, what would be the best wavelength to sense it?
extra puzzler 21
Extra Puzzler 2
  • If a lava flow has a temperature of approximately 1000oC, what would be the best wavelength to sense it?
  • lm = A / T

lm = wavelength of max radiant exittance

A = 2898 mm K T = temperature K

  • lm = A / T = 2898 mm K / 1273 K
    • lm = 2.27 mm
    • Which is in the short-middle infrared